Welcome to the Exergoecology Portal
You are here: Home / Resources / Exergoecology bibliography / The crepuscular planet. A model for the exhausted atmosphere and hydrosphere

Antonio Valero, Andrés Agudelo, and Alicia Valero (2011)

The crepuscular planet. A model for the exhausted atmosphere and hydrosphere

Energy, 36:3745-3753.

The Crepuscular Earth presented here is a guess reference model of the planet in which all mineral resources have been extracted and dispersed and fossil fuels have been burnt. It serves as a realistic limit of resources to assess the Earth's non-renewable exergy capital. Under such conditions we estimate a state of the atmosphere and hydrosphere using updated fossil fuels stocks (1925 GtC for proven reserves, rising to about 16,224 GtC when including estimated additional reserves) and emissions projections in a simple model of the carbon cycle. We consider the BAU-I scenario as the most likely to occur, corresponding to an atmospheric injection of about 2000 GtC. Accordingly, we propose a crepuscular atmosphere having a carbon dioxide content of 683 ppm, a mean surface temperature of 17 °C (peak carbon dioxide induced warming of 3.7 °C above pre-industrial temperatures), a pressure of 1.021 bar, and a composition in volume basis of 78.8% N2, 20.92% O2, 0.93% Ar, and 0.0015% of trace gases. Considering that oceans account for 97.5% of the whole hydrosphere, the crepuscular hydrosphere is assumed to have the current chemical composition of the oceans at an average temperature of 17 °C. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Document Actions


Please subscribe for the new newsletter.

Logo instituto Circe
Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad
Ulysea S.L. - Informática

The Material Limits of Energy Transition: Thanatia

Antonio Valero Capilla, Alicia Valero Delgado and Guiomar Calvo

This book provides a holistic view of raw mineral depletion in the context of renewable energy transistion.

The material limits Thanatia


Thanatia. Los límites minerales del planeta

mites minerales del planeta

 Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado interviewed by Adrián Almazán

We need a material transition, not only energetic, that restores nature and effectively reuses materials. Gaia must be cared for by extending life on Earth and slowing its degradation towards Thanatia.

Thanatia los limites


Thermodynamics for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Cover Thermodynamics

Wojciech Stanek (Editor)

This book examines ways of assessing the rational management of nonrenewable resources. Integrating numerous methods, it systematically exposes the strengths of exergy analysis in resources management.

Thanatia: The Destiny of the Earth's Mineral Resources

Cover Thanatia

A Thermodynamic Cradle-to-Cradle Assessment by (author): Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado

Is Gaia becoming Thanatia, a resource exhausted planet? For how long can our high-tech society be sustained in the light of declining mineral ore grades, heavy dependence on un-recycled critical metals and accelerated material dispersion? These are all root causes of future disruptions that need to be addressed today.