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Alicia Valero D, Antonio Valero, and Javier B Gómez (2011)

The crepuscular planet. A model for the exhausted continental crust

Energy, 36(1):694 - 707.

We propose a model for an exhausted upper continental crust. The Crepuscular Earth represents a degraded planet where all resources have been extracted and dispersed, and all fossil fuels have been burned. The starting point of the model of crepuscular crust is the composition given by the geochemist Grigor'ev, which is constrained by the conservation of mass statement between the chemical composition of the crust in terms of elements and in terms of minerals. Additionally, the model is given geological consistence, by introducing a series of assumptions based on geological observations. As a result, the obtained crepuscular crust is composed of the 294 most abundant minerals. Together with the model of exhausted atmosphere and hydrosphere developed in a previous paper, the study will serve as a reference for calculating the exergy of the current mineral capital on Earth and its degradation velocity.


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Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad
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The Material Limits of Energy Transition: Thanatia

Antonio Valero Capilla, Alicia Valero Delgado and Guiomar Calvo

This book provides a holistic view of raw mineral depletion in the context of renewable energy transistion.

The material limits Thanatia


Thanatia. Los límites minerales del planeta

mites minerales del planeta

 Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado interviewed by Adrián Almazán

We need a material transition, not only energetic, that restores nature and effectively reuses materials. Gaia must be cared for by extending life on Earth and slowing its degradation towards Thanatia.

Thanatia los limites


Thermodynamics for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Cover Thermodynamics

Wojciech Stanek (Editor)

This book examines ways of assessing the rational management of nonrenewable resources. Integrating numerous methods, it systematically exposes the strengths of exergy analysis in resources management.

Thanatia: The Destiny of the Earth's Mineral Resources

Cover Thanatia

A Thermodynamic Cradle-to-Cradle Assessment by (author): Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado

Is Gaia becoming Thanatia, a resource exhausted planet? For how long can our high-tech society be sustained in the light of declining mineral ore grades, heavy dependence on un-recycled critical metals and accelerated material dispersion? These are all root causes of future disruptions that need to be addressed today.