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Quanyin Tan, Lili Liu, Miao Yu, and Jinhui Li (2020)

An innovative method of recycling metals in printed circuit board (PCB) using solutions from PCB production

Journal of Hazardous Materials, 390.

Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) have both a potentially high resource value and hazardous drawbacks. Meanwhile, large quantities of corrosive waste solutions are generated in PCB production. Existing methods for recycling metals in WPCBs produce high yields but unfortunately produce secondary pollution. In this study, to minimize these disadvantages, a win-win innovative recycling method for WPCBs was developed using waste solutions that are generated in PCB production. Both of the waste solutions - waste tin stripping solution (WTSS) and waste etching solution (WES) - had an enormous capacity to extract Pb, Sn, and Cu. It was suggested that 1 L of WTSS was potentially capable for dissolving solder from 3.6 to 7.2 kg of WPCBs under room temperature, while WES was capable for Cu leaching from 0.13-0.35 kg of WPCBs. Compared with conventional leaching solutions, it was demonstrated that approximately 1 kW h of electricity could be saved from the recycling process when WTSS and WES were used to recycle only 1 kg of WPCBs. The proposed approach can be expected to significantly reduce energy consumption for recycling metals from WPCBs, without additional waste solution generated, and to increase the potential value of WTSS and WES, as they can facilitate the recycling process.

Closing loops, Metals, Printed circuit board, Recycling, Waste solution

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Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad
Ulysea S.L. - Informática

The Material Limits of Energy Transition: Thanatia

Antonio Valero Capilla, Alicia Valero Delgado and Guiomar Calvo

This book provides a holistic view of raw mineral depletion in the context of renewable energy transistion.

The material limits Thanatia


Thanatia. Los límites minerales del planeta

mites minerales del planeta

 Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado interviewed by Adrián Almazán

We need a material transition, not only energetic, that restores nature and effectively reuses materials. Gaia must be cared for by extending life on Earth and slowing its degradation towards Thanatia.

Thanatia los limites


Thermodynamics for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Cover Thermodynamics

Wojciech Stanek (Editor)

This book examines ways of assessing the rational management of nonrenewable resources. Integrating numerous methods, it systematically exposes the strengths of exergy analysis in resources management.

Thanatia: The Destiny of the Earth's Mineral Resources

Cover Thanatia

A Thermodynamic Cradle-to-Cradle Assessment by (author): Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado

Is Gaia becoming Thanatia, a resource exhausted planet? For how long can our high-tech society be sustained in the light of declining mineral ore grades, heavy dependence on un-recycled critical metals and accelerated material dispersion? These are all root causes of future disruptions that need to be addressed today.