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Manivannan Sethurajan, Eric Dv Hullebusch, Danilo Fontana, Ata Akcil, Haci Deveci, Bojan Batinic, João P Leal, Teresa A Gasche, Mehmet A Kucuker, Kerstin Kuchta, Isabel F Neto, Helena M Soares, and Andrzej Chmielarz (2019)

Recent advances on hydrometallurgical recovery of critical and precious elements from end of life electronic wastes - a review

Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 49:212-275.

Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) contains economically significant levels of precious, critical metals and rare earth elements, apart from base metals and other toxic compounds. Recycling and recovery of critical elements from WEEEs using a cost-effective technology are now one of the top priorities in metallurgy due to the rapid depletion of their natural resources. More than 150 publications on WEEE management, leaching and recovery of metals from WEEE were reviewed in this work, with special emphasize on the recent research (2015–2018). This paper summarizes the recent progress regarding various hydrometallurgical processes for the leaching of critical elements from WEEEs. Various methodologies and techniques for critical elements selective recovery (using ionic liquids, solvent extraction, electrowinning, adsorption, and precipitation) from the WEEEs leachates are discussed. Future prospects regarding the use of WEEEs as secondary resources for critical raw materials and its techno-economical and commercial beneficiaries are discussed. AbbreviationsE-Waste Electronic wasteWEEE Waste electrical and electronic equipmentCRM Critical raw materialsPCB Printed circuit boardLCD Liquid crystal displayCRT Cathode ray tubeFl. Lamp Fluorescent lampHDD Hard disk drivesLED Light emitting diodeEU European UnionUNEP United Nations Environmental ProgramREE Rare earth elementITO Indium-tin oxidePM Precious metalNiMH battery Nickel-hydride batteryCPU Central processing unitRAM Random access memoryLiBs Li-ion batteriesSFL Spent fluorescent lamps.

Critical and precious metals, Critical raw materials, E-Wastes, Hydrometallurgy, Metal selective recovery, Rare earth elements, WEEEs

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The Material Limits of Energy Transition: Thanatia

Antonio Valero Capilla, Alicia Valero Delgado and Guiomar Calvo

This book provides a holistic view of raw mineral depletion in the context of renewable energy transistion.

The material limits Thanatia


Thanatia. Los límites minerales del planeta

mites minerales del planeta

 Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado interviewed by Adrián Almazán

We need a material transition, not only energetic, that restores nature and effectively reuses materials. Gaia must be cared for by extending life on Earth and slowing its degradation towards Thanatia.

Thanatia los limites


Thermodynamics for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Cover Thermodynamics

Wojciech Stanek (Editor)

This book examines ways of assessing the rational management of nonrenewable resources. Integrating numerous methods, it systematically exposes the strengths of exergy analysis in resources management.

Thanatia: The Destiny of the Earth's Mineral Resources

Cover Thanatia

A Thermodynamic Cradle-to-Cradle Assessment by (author): Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado

Is Gaia becoming Thanatia, a resource exhausted planet? For how long can our high-tech society be sustained in the light of declining mineral ore grades, heavy dependence on un-recycled critical metals and accelerated material dispersion? These are all root causes of future disruptions that need to be addressed today.