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M. A Reuter and A. v Schaik (2015)

Product-Centric Simulation-Based Design for Recycling: Case of LED Lamp Recycling

Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 1:4-28.

This paper will illustrate how a product-centric simulation approach to recycling is core to Design for Recycling (DfR) & Design for Resource Efficiency. This approach is underpinned by rigorous recycling rate calculations, building on the extensive expertise, knowhow and tools of classical minerals, and metallurgical processing. Process simulation and design tools such as the commercial HSC Sim software are applied to quantify critical DfR rules for a particular product as well as to quantify the recycling rates of all materials and elements in a product. The ten DfR rules we have developed for Waste Electric and Electronic Waste recycling in a study performed for NVMP/Wecycle (the Netherlands) are applied to light emitting diode (LED) lamps. The results produced include recycling and recovery rates, as well as recyclate qualities and quantities, and losses and emissions of materials during recycling for various LED lamp redesigns. Metallurgical processing is also briefly discussed, showing that, in many cases, element recoveries are reduced to zero due to product complexity and ppm levels in the products. Simulation models are linked to life cycle assessment (LCA) and exergy, demonstrating how the applied simulation basis provides the detail to innovate the system. In addition, rigorous environmental assessment is a further outcome of the approach, while at the same time revealing the development that has to occur in LCA databases to improve their value for Ecodesign.

Ecodesign, Greenprinting, LED lamp, Metallurgy, Product-centric design for recycling, Simulation, WEEE system design

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