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M. A Reuter and A. v Schaik (2015)

Product-Centric Simulation-Based Design for Recycling: Case of LED Lamp Recycling

Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 1:4-28.

This paper will illustrate how a product-centric simulation approach to recycling is core to Design for Recycling (DfR) & Design for Resource Efficiency. This approach is underpinned by rigorous recycling rate calculations, building on the extensive expertise, knowhow and tools of classical minerals, and metallurgical processing. Process simulation and design tools such as the commercial HSC Sim software are applied to quantify critical DfR rules for a particular product as well as to quantify the recycling rates of all materials and elements in a product. The ten DfR rules we have developed for Waste Electric and Electronic Waste recycling in a study performed for NVMP/Wecycle (the Netherlands) are applied to light emitting diode (LED) lamps. The results produced include recycling and recovery rates, as well as recyclate qualities and quantities, and losses and emissions of materials during recycling for various LED lamp redesigns. Metallurgical processing is also briefly discussed, showing that, in many cases, element recoveries are reduced to zero due to product complexity and ppm levels in the products. Simulation models are linked to life cycle assessment (LCA) and exergy, demonstrating how the applied simulation basis provides the detail to innovate the system. In addition, rigorous environmental assessment is a further outcome of the approach, while at the same time revealing the development that has to occur in LCA databases to improve their value for Ecodesign.

Ecodesign, Greenprinting, LED lamp, Metallurgy, Product-centric design for recycling, Simulation, WEEE system design

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Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad
Ulysea S.L. - Informática

The Material Limits of Energy Transition: Thanatia

Antonio Valero Capilla, Alicia Valero Delgado and Guiomar Calvo

This book provides a holistic view of raw mineral depletion in the context of renewable energy transistion.

The material limits Thanatia


Thanatia. Los límites minerales del planeta

mites minerales del planeta

 Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado interviewed by Adrián Almazán

We need a material transition, not only energetic, that restores nature and effectively reuses materials. Gaia must be cared for by extending life on Earth and slowing its degradation towards Thanatia.

Thanatia los limites


Thermodynamics for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Cover Thermodynamics

Wojciech Stanek (Editor)

This book examines ways of assessing the rational management of nonrenewable resources. Integrating numerous methods, it systematically exposes the strengths of exergy analysis in resources management.

Thanatia: The Destiny of the Earth's Mineral Resources

Cover Thanatia

A Thermodynamic Cradle-to-Cradle Assessment by (author): Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado

Is Gaia becoming Thanatia, a resource exhausted planet? For how long can our high-tech society be sustained in the light of declining mineral ore grades, heavy dependence on un-recycled critical metals and accelerated material dispersion? These are all root causes of future disruptions that need to be addressed today.