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Hoang-Long Le, Eiji Yamasue, Hideyuki Okumura, and Keiichi N Ishihara (2013)

MEMRECS—A Sustainable View for Metal Recycling from Waste Printed Circuit Boards

Journal of Environmental Protection, 04:803-810.

This study analyses the metal recyclability from waste Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) with three material recycling quoting approaches: Material Recycling Efficiency (MRE), Resource Recovery Efficiency (RRE), and Quotes for En-vironmentally Weighted Recyclability (QWERTY). The results indicate that MRE is likely inapplicable to quoting the metal recyclability of waste PCBs because it makes the recycling of any metal equal to each other (e.g. recycling of 1 kg of gold is as important as recycling of 1 kg of iron). RRE and QWERTY can overcome the poor yardstick of MRE because they concern not only the weight of recycled materials but also the contribution of recycled materials to the natural resource conservation and the environmental impact reduction, respectively. These two approaches, however, report an extremely different result, that makes the target stakeholders get confused with which material recycled. From the findings of the aforementioned analysis, this study proposes the Model for Evaluating Metal Recycling Efficiency from Complex Scraps (MEMRECS) as a new approach to quotes the metal recycling performance. MEMRECS allows the trade-offs between three criteria: mass, environmental impacts and natural resources conservation, hence it can pro-vide the result in a sustainable sound manner. MEMRECS clearly models and enhances the role of natural resources conservation aspect rather than QWERTY does.

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Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad
Ulysea S.L. - Informática

The Material Limits of Energy Transition: Thanatia

Antonio Valero Capilla, Alicia Valero Delgado and Guiomar Calvo

This book provides a holistic view of raw mineral depletion in the context of renewable energy transistion.

The material limits Thanatia


Thanatia. Los límites minerales del planeta

mites minerales del planeta

 Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado interviewed by Adrián Almazán

We need a material transition, not only energetic, that restores nature and effectively reuses materials. Gaia must be cared for by extending life on Earth and slowing its degradation towards Thanatia.

Thanatia los limites


Thermodynamics for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Cover Thermodynamics

Wojciech Stanek (Editor)

This book examines ways of assessing the rational management of nonrenewable resources. Integrating numerous methods, it systematically exposes the strengths of exergy analysis in resources management.

Thanatia: The Destiny of the Earth's Mineral Resources

Cover Thanatia

A Thermodynamic Cradle-to-Cradle Assessment by (author): Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado

Is Gaia becoming Thanatia, a resource exhausted planet? For how long can our high-tech society be sustained in the light of declining mineral ore grades, heavy dependence on un-recycled critical metals and accelerated material dispersion? These are all root causes of future disruptions that need to be addressed today.