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Vinod Kumar, Jae c Lee, Jinki Jeong, Manis K Jha, Byung s Kim, and Ratnakar Singh (2015)

Recycling of printed circuit boards (PCBs) to generate enriched rare metal concentrate

Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 21:805-813.

An eco-friendly process for recycling obsolete PCBs to get enriched rare-metal concentrate using physical separation technique is discussed. Metal concentration in digital video disc (DVD) PCBs is 43. wt.% whereas in vacuum cleaner (VC) PCBs 30. wt.% with rare metal of 2.8%. Concentrate grade of 88% total metals including 5.85% rare metals in-case of DVD-PCBs while 90% of total metals including 2.81% rare metals in-case of VC-PCBs was achieved by froth flotation. While 75% total metals including 9.41% rare metals for DVD-PCBs and 65% total metals including 5.10% rare metals for VC-PCBs was obtained by pneumatic separation.

Froth flotation, Metal enrichment, PCBs, Pneumatic separation, Rare metals

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The Material Limits of Energy Transition: Thanatia

Antonio Valero Capilla, Alicia Valero Delgado and Guiomar Calvo

This book provides a holistic view of raw mineral depletion in the context of renewable energy transistion.

The material limits Thanatia


Thanatia. Los límites minerales del planeta

mites minerales del planeta

 Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado interviewed by Adrián Almazán

We need a material transition, not only energetic, that restores nature and effectively reuses materials. Gaia must be cared for by extending life on Earth and slowing its degradation towards Thanatia.

Thanatia los limites


Thermodynamics for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Cover Thermodynamics

Wojciech Stanek (Editor)

This book examines ways of assessing the rational management of nonrenewable resources. Integrating numerous methods, it systematically exposes the strengths of exergy analysis in resources management.

Thanatia: The Destiny of the Earth's Mineral Resources

Cover Thanatia

A Thermodynamic Cradle-to-Cradle Assessment by (author): Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado

Is Gaia becoming Thanatia, a resource exhausted planet? For how long can our high-tech society be sustained in the light of declining mineral ore grades, heavy dependence on un-recycled critical metals and accelerated material dispersion? These are all root causes of future disruptions that need to be addressed today.