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Tobias Ernst, Ralf Popp, Marion Wolf, and Rudi van Eldik (2003)

Analysis of eco-relevant elements and noble metals in printed wiring boards using AAS, ICP-AES and EDXRF

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 375:805-814.

Different analytical procedures were developed to investigate the chemical composition of printed wiring boards. A set of 11 samples from different electronic devices were ground and prepared for ICP-AES and AAS analyses by extraction with aqua regia and microwave digestion. Several sample preparation techniques were used for the analyses by EDXRF; the best results were obtained by embedding the samples in Vaseline. Since no standard reference material is available for printed wiring boards, a model reference material was created to compare the applicability and limitations of the employed analytical techniques. © Springer-Verlag 2003.

Electronic scrap, Heavy metals, Noble metals, Printed wiring (circuit) boards

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The Material Limits of Energy Transition: Thanatia

Antonio Valero Capilla, Alicia Valero Delgado and Guiomar Calvo

This book provides a holistic view of raw mineral depletion in the context of renewable energy transistion.

The material limits Thanatia


Thanatia. Los límites minerales del planeta

mites minerales del planeta

 Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado interviewed by Adrián Almazán

We need a material transition, not only energetic, that restores nature and effectively reuses materials. Gaia must be cared for by extending life on Earth and slowing its degradation towards Thanatia.

Thanatia los limites


Thermodynamics for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Cover Thermodynamics

Wojciech Stanek (Editor)

This book examines ways of assessing the rational management of nonrenewable resources. Integrating numerous methods, it systematically exposes the strengths of exergy analysis in resources management.

Thanatia: The Destiny of the Earth's Mineral Resources

Cover Thanatia

A Thermodynamic Cradle-to-Cradle Assessment by (author): Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado

Is Gaia becoming Thanatia, a resource exhausted planet? For how long can our high-tech society be sustained in the light of declining mineral ore grades, heavy dependence on un-recycled critical metals and accelerated material dispersion? These are all root causes of future disruptions that need to be addressed today.