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  author =   {Ahrendts, J.},
  title =    {Reference States},
  journal =  {Energy},
  year =     {1980},
  volume =   {5},
  pages =    {667-677},
  comment =  {Documento en papel archivado por Alicia Valero},
  crossref = {Ahrendts 1980},
  keywords = {Reference state, Availability, Exergy, Chemical equilibrium},
  owner =    {alvalero}

  author =   {Kameyama, H. and Yoshida, K. and Yamauchi, S. and Fueki, K. },
  title =    {Evaluation of Reference Exergy for the elements },
  journal =  {Applied Energy},
  year =     {1982},
  volume =   {11},
  pages =    {69-83},
  crossref = {Kameyama 1982},
  file =     {Applied Energy 1982 11 69.pdf:\\\\Morko\\Costurbis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Applied Energy 1982 11 69.pdf:PDF},
  owner =    {alvalero}

  author =   {Szargut, J. and Ziebik, A. and Stanek, W.},
  title =    {Depletion of the non-renewable natural exergy resources as a measure of the ecological cost},
  journal =  {Energy Conversion and Management},
  year =     {2002},
  number =   {43},
  pages =    {1149-1163},
  comment =  {Cálculo del coste ecológico propuesto por Szargut et al. a través de un sistema linear de ecuaciones input-output},
  crossref = {ecological cost},
  keywords = {Exergy, Ecological cost, Natural resources, Environmental losses, Major energy carriers, Pig iron},
  owner =    {alvalero}

  author =      {Ahrendts, J.},
  title =       {The exergy of chemically reacting systems},
  institution = {VDI Forschungsheft 579},
  year =        {1977},
  address =     {Düsseldorf},
  note =        {In German}

  author =    {Alvarado, S. et al.},
  title =     {Energy-exergy optimization of comminution},
  journal =   {Energy},
  year =      {1998},
  volume =    {23},
  number =    {4},
  pages =     {153-158},
  file =      {:C\:\\datos\\Tesis\\Biblio\\pdfs\\Alvarado1998.pdf:PDF},
  issn =      {0140-6701},
  key =       {tagkey1998316},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2012.06.14}

  author =    {Ayres, R.U. and Martinas, K.},
  title =     {{Waste Potential Entropy: The Ultimate Ecotoxic}},
  journal =   {Economie Appliquee},
  year =      {1995},
  volume =    {XLVIII},
  number =    {2},
  pages =     {95-120},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2012.07.05}

  author =    {Robert U Ayres},
  title =     {Eco-thermodynamics: economics and the second law},
  journal =   {Ecological Economics},
  year =      {1998},
  volume =    {26},
  number =    {2},
  pages =     {189 - 209},
  abstract =  {The laws of physics, especially the first and second laws of thermodynamics,
	have significant implications for economic theory. The major implications
	of the First Law (conservation of mass/energy) are straightforward
	and have been discussed at length elsewhere. In brief, raw material
	inputs to economic processes are not `consumed'. Having been extracted
	from the environment in the first place, they eventually return to
	the environment as wastes. The economic implications of the Second
	Law (entropy law) are far more subtle. There is considerable literature,
	initiated by the work of Georgescu-Roegen, on the supposed constraints
	on economic growth imposed by the fact that economic processes utilize
	`low-entropy' raw materials (fossil fuels and high grade metal ores)
	and discard `high entropy' wastes. However, as a practical matter
	the flux of available low-entropy energy (exergy) from the sun is
	extremely large and certainly adequate to sustain economic activity
	in the solar system indefinitely, even though fossil fuel and metal
	ore stocks may eventually be exhausted. It is argued in this paper
	that the real economic significance of the Second Law lies in the
	fact that exergy is: (i) not conserved; and (ii) is a useful common
	measure of resource quality, as well as quantity, applicable to both
	materials and energy. Thus, exergy can be used to measure and compare
	resource inputs and outputs, including wastes and losses. This is
	potentially important in itself. Moreover, since exergy is not conserved
	it is truly consumed (i.e. used up) in economic processes. Hence,
	exergy is no less a `factor of production' than labor or capital.
	This fact has strong implications for economic growth theory, especially
	with regard to assessing the role of technical progress.},
  file =      {:C\:\\datos\\Tesis\\Biblio\\pdfs\\Ayres1998b.pdf:PDF},
  issn =      {0921-8009},
  keywords =  {Energy},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2012.06.14}

  author =    {Robert U Ayres},
  title =     {The second law, the fourth law, recycling and limits to growth},
  journal =   {Ecological Economics},
  year =      {1999},
  volume =    {29},
  number =    {3},
  pages =     {473 - 483},
  abstract =  {Despite counter examples in nature, it has been argued that total
	recycling is impossible for an industrial society as a consequence
	of the second law of thermodynamics. In this paper it is shown that
	there is no such limitation. However, it is also shown that there
	must be a large stockpile of inactive materials as well as an exogenous
	source of exergy (e.g. from the sun) for a stable steady-state recycling
	system to function. The paper also discusses (briefly) some of the
	implications for economic growth.},
  file =      {:C\:\\datos\\Tesis\\Biblio\\pdfs\\Ayres1999.pdf:PDF},
  issn =      {0921-8009},
  keywords =  {Fourth Law},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2012.06.14}

  author =  {R.U. Ayres and L.W. Ayres and B. Warr},
  title =   {{Exergy, power and work in the US economy, 1900 to1998}},
  journal = {Energy},
  year =    {2003},
  volume =  {28},
  pages =   {219-273},
  comment = {Lo tengo en papel. En la carpeta de exergy.},
  file =    {Ayres2003.pdf:pdfs\\Ayres2003.pdf:PDF},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  chapter =   {An application of exergy accounting to five basic metal industries},
  pages =     {141-194},
  title =     {Sustainable Metals Management},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year =      {2006},
  author =    {R.U. Ayres and L.W. Ayres and A. Masini},
  comment =   {Lo tengo en papel},
  file =      {Ayres2006.pdf:D\:\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Ayres2006.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero}

  author =               {B\"{o}sch, Michael and Hellweg, Stefanie and Huijbregts, Mark and Frischknecht, Rolf},
  title =                {{Applying cumulative exergy demand (CExD) indicators to the ecoinvent database}},
  journal =              {The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment},
  year =                 {2007},
  volume =               {12},
  number =               {3},
  pages =                {181--190},
  month =                may,
  abstract =             {{Goal, Scope and Background  Exergy has been put forward as an indicator
	for the energetic quality of resources. The exergy of a resource
	accounts for the minimal work necessary to form the resource or for
	the maximally obtainable amount of work when bringing the resource's
	components to their most common state in the natural environment.
	Exergy measures are traditionally applied to assess energy efficiency,
	regarding the exergy losses in a process system. However, the measure
	can be utilised as an indicator of resource quality demand when considering
	the specific resources that contain the exergy. Such an exergy measure
	indicates the required resources and assesses the total exergy removal
	from nature in order to provide a product, process or service. In
	the current work, the exergy concept is combined with a large number
	of life cycle inventory datasets available with ecoinvent data v1.2.
	The goal was, first, to provide an additional impact category indicator
	to Life-Cycle Assessment practitioners. Second, this work aims at
	making a large source of exergy scores available to scientific communities
	that apply exergy as a primary indicator for energy efficiency and
	resource quality demand. Methods  The indicator Cumulative Exergy
	Demand (CExD) is introduced to depict total exergy removal from nature
	to provide a product, summing up the exergy of all resources required.
	CExD assesses the quality of energy demand and includes the exergy
	of energy carriers as well as of non-energetic materials. In the
	current paper, the exergy concept was applied to the resources contained
	in the ecoinvent database, considering chemical, kinetic, hydro-potential,
	nuclear, solar-radiative and thermal exergies. The impact category
	indicator is grouped into the eight resource categories fossil, nuclear,
	hydropower, biomass, other renewables, water, minerals, and metals.
	Exergy characterization factors for 112 different resources were
	included in the calculations. Results  CExD was calculated for
	2630 ecoinvent product and process systems. The results are presented
	as average values and for 26 specific groups containing 1197 products,
	processes and infrastructure units. Depending on the process/product
	group considered, energetic resources make up between 9\% and 100\%
	of the total CExD, with an average contribution of 88\%. The exergy
	of water contributes on the average to 8\% the total exergy demand,
	but to more than 90\% in specific process groups. The average contribution
	of minerals and metal ores is 4\%, but shows an average value as
	high as 38\% and 13\%, in metallic products and in building materials,
	respectively. Looking at individual processes, the contribution of
	the resource categories varies substantially from these average product
	group values. In comparison to Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) and
	the abiotic-resource-depletion category of CML 2001 (CML'01), non-energetic
	resources tend to be weighted more strongly by the CExD method. Discussion  Energy
	and matter used in a society are not destroyed but only transformed.
	What is consumed and eventually depleted is usable energy and usable
	matter. Exergy is a measure of such useful energy. Therefore, CExD
	is a suitable energy based indicator for the quality of resources
	that are removed from nature. Similar to CED, CExD assesses energy
	use, but regards the quality of the energy and incorporates non-energetic
	materials like minerals and metals. However, it can be observed for
	non-renewable energy-intensive products that CExD is very similar
	to CED. Since CExD considers energetic and non-energetic resources
	on the basis of exhaustible exergy, the measure is comparable to
	resource indicators like the resource use category of Eco-indicator
	99 and the resource depletion category of CML 2001. An advantage
	of CExD in comparison to these methods is that exergy is an inherent
	property of the resource. Therefore less assumptions and subjective
	choices need to be made in setting up characterization factors. However,
	CExD does not coversocietal demand (distinguishing between basic
	demand and luxury), availability or scarcity of the resource. As
	a consequence of the different weighting approach, CExD may differ
	considerably from the resource category indicators in Eco-indicator
	99 and CML 2001. Conclusions  The current work shows that the exergy
	concept can be operationalised in product life cycle assessments.
	CExD is a suitable indicator to assess energy and resource demand.
	Due to the consideration of the quality of energy and the integration
	of non-energetic resources, CExD is a more comprehensive indicator
	than the widely used CED. All of the eight CExD categories proposed
	are significant contributors to Cumulative Exergy Demand in at least
	one of the product groups analysed. In product or service assessments
	and comparative assertions, a careful and concious selection of the
	appropriate CExD-categories is required based on the energy and resource
	quality demand concept to be expressed by CExD. Recommendations and
	Perspectives  A differentiation between the exergy of fossil, nuclear,
	hydro-potential, biomass, other renewables, water and mineral/metal
	resources is recommended in order to obtain a more detailed picture
	of resource quality demand and to recognise trade-offs between resource
	use, for instance energetic and non-energetic raw materials, or nonrenewable
	and renewable energies.}},
  citeulike-article-id = {9270492},
  citeulike-linkout-0 =  {http://dx.doi.org/10.1065/lca2006.11.282},
  citeulike-linkout-1 =  {http://www.springerlink.com/content/a707x44836102627},
  day =                  {1},
  issn =                 {0948-3349},
  owner =                {alvalero},
  posted-at =            {2011-05-10 12:07:55},
  publisher =            {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  timestamp =            {2011.05.10}

  author =  {Bosjankovic, F.},
  title =   {Reference Level of Exergy of Chemically Reacting Systems},
  journal = {Forschung im Ingenieurwesen},
  year =    {1963},
  volume =  {21},
  pages =   {151-152}

  chapter =   {The entropy trap},
  pages =     {141-144},
  title =     {The Meaning of the Twentieth Century},
  publisher = {George Allen \& Unwit Ltd. London},
  year =      {1964},
  author =    {Kenneth Boulding},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2011.01.12}

  author =    {Calvo, Guiomar and Valero, Alicia and Valero, Antonio and Carpintero, Oscar},
  title =     {An exergoecological analysis of the mineral economy in Spain},
  journal =   {Energy},
  year =      {2015},
  volume =    {88},
  pages =     {2-8},
  month =     aug,
  abstract =  {Abstract This paper shows how exergy can be used to assess the mineral
	balance of a country and at the same time assess its mineral resource
	sustainability. The advantage of using such an approach is that the
	quality of the resources is taken into account, as opposed to the
	conventional procedure that uses tonnage as a yardstick. The exergoecology
	method evaluates mineral resources as the exergy required to replace
	them from a complete dispersed state to the conditions they were
	originally found with the best available technologies. The country
	chosen as a case study is Spain and serves as a representative example
	of the mineral situation in Europe. The general trend observed is
	that imports are increasing and domestic production is decreasing.
	The minerals with higher exergy replacement costs are mainly those
	imported, including fossil fuels and scarce minerals. In 2005, the
	domestic production of minerals was higher than the imports but since
	imports were mainly of scarce minerals, the exergy loss associated
	with such imports was higher compared to domestic production. As
	it happens to most European nations, Spain is a very dependent country
	regarding the supply of fossil fuels but not as much in the case
	of non-fuel minerals.},
  file =      {Calvo2015.pdf:pdfs\\Calvo2015.pdf:PDF},
  issn =      {0360-5442},
  keywords =  {Material extraction, Domestic material consumption, Exergy replacement costs, Exergy analysis},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2015.09.02},
  url =       {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544215001073}

  author = {Guiomar Calvo},
  title =  {Exergy assessment of mineral extraction, trade and depletion},
  school = {Universidad de Zaragoza},
  year =   {2016},
  month =  {February}

  author =   {Calvo, Guiomar and Valero, Alicia and Valero, Antonio},
  title =    {Thermodynamic Approach to Evaluate the Criticality of Raw Materials and Its Application through a Material Flow Analysis in Europe},
  journal =  {Journal of Industrial Ecology},
  pages =    {n/a--n/a},
  abstract = {This paper makes a review of current raw material criticality assessment methodologies and proposes a new approach based on the second law of thermodynamics. This is because conventional methods mostly focus on supply risk and economic importance leaving behind relevant factors, such as the physical quality of substances. The new approach is proposed as an additional dimension for the criticality assessment of raw materials through a variable denoted “thermodynamic rarity,” which accounts for the exergy cost required to obtain a mineral commodity from bare rock, using prevailing technology. Accordingly, a given raw material will be thermodynamically rare if it is: (1) currently energy intensive to obtain and (2) scarce in nature. If a given commodity presents a high risk in two of the three dimensions (economic importance, supply risk, and thermodynamic rarity), it is proposed to be critical. As a result, a new critical material list is presented, adding to the 2014 criticality list of the European Commission (EC) Li, Ta, Te, V, and Mo. With this new list and using Sankey diagrams, a material flow analysis has been carried out for Europe (EU-28) for 2014, comparing the results when using tonnage and thermodynamic rarity as units of measure. Through the latter, one can put emphasis on the quality and not only on the quantity of minerals traded and domestically produced in the region, thereby providing a tool for improving resource management.},
  doi =      {10.1111/jiec.12624},
  file =     {Calvo2017.pdf:pdfs\\Calvo2017.pdf:PDF},
  issn =     {1530-9290},
  keywords = {critical raw materials, European Union, industrial ecology, material flow analysis, mineral trade, thermodynamic rarity},
  url =      {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jiec.12624}

  author =   {Calvo, Guiomar and Valero, Alicia and Valero, Antonio},
  title =    {Material flow analysis for Europe: An exergoecological approach},
  journal =  {Ecological Indicators},
  year =     {2016},
  volume =   {60},
  pages =    {603--610},
  month =    jan,
  abstract = {Abstract Material flow analysis is a key tool to quantify and monitor the use of natural resources. A very visual way to undertake such analyses representing the mineral trade is through Sankey diagrams, in which the mineral resources that are extracted, imported, exported, recycled and consumed within the given boundaries are represented with the arrows proportional to their respective quantities. Yet Sankey diagrams alone are not sensitive to the quality of the resources as they only reflect tonnage. This issue can lead to misleading conclusions and thereby not effective resource policies. A way to overcome this deficiency is representing the flows in exergy replacement cost (ERC) terms instead of tonnage. Exergy replacement cost is a concept derived from the second law of thermodynamics and assesses the exergy cost required to return with available technologies a given mineral to its initial conditions of composition and concentration in the mines where it was found, once it has been dispersed after use. Using this methodology, minerals are physically valued in terms of their respective scarcities and the effort (in exergy cost terms) required to produce them. Accordingly, in this paper the so-called exergoecology method is used to evaluate mineral trade and foreign mineral dependency in the EU-28 for 1995 to 2012. Using the year 2011 as a case study, it can be seen using this novel approach that 45.8% of the total input of minerals are imported resulting in lower values of self-sufficiency than if a traditional MFA were applied (0.45 for minerals and 0.41 for fossil fuels, in contrast to 0.79 and 0.52 obtained respectively when using tonnes). Analyzing 10 of the 20 minerals deemed critical by the European Commission, of the total internal production, 0.88% corresponded to critical minerals when data were expressed in tonnes and 3.19% when expressed in exergy replacement costs, highlighting their relevance respect to other minerals. This external dependency leaves Europe in a delicate situation regarding fossil fuels and non-fuel minerals supply highlighting the importance of recycling especially scarce minerals and searching for alternative sources.},
  file =     {Calvo2016.pdf:pdfs\\Calvo2016.pdf:PDF},
  issn =     {1470-160X},
  keywords = {Material flow analysis, Sankey diagram, Exergy replacement cost, Mineral balance, Mineral trade},
  url =      {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X15004264}

  author =    {Carmona, Luis Gabriel and Whiting, Kai and Valero, Alicia and Valero, Antonio},
  title =     {Colombian mineral resources: An analysis from a Thermodynamic Second Law perspective},
  journal =   {Resources Policy},
  year =      {2015},
  volume =    {45},
  pages =     {23--28},
  month =     {Sept.},
  abstract =  {Abstract Natural non-renewable resources, such as minerals, are becoming
	increasingly depleted against a backdrop of intense industrialisation.
	Through the exergy analysis and thermoeconomic tools it is possible
	to assign a figure to the degree of depletion. This is because the
	exergy replacement cost represents the effort needed by humankind
	to return minerals to their original conditions from the "commercially
	dead state", Thanatia. The authors undertake an evaluation of the
	ten most significantly produced minerals in Colombia, since 1990.
	Via the 2011 mineral balance, this paper shows that the highest exergetic
	losses are in the extraction for export and not national consumption
	rates. The loss in mineral wealth, quantified in exergy terms for
	2011 is 119.2 Mtoe (4.99--109 GJ) and has, since 1990, accumulated
	to 1,543.4 Mtoe (6.46--1010 GJ). In converting these losses into
	economic terms, it becomes clear that the nation must re-think its
	mineral export strategy, if it is develop sustainably.},
  file =      {Carmona2015.pdf:pdfs\\Carmona2015.pdf:PDF},
  issn =      {0301-4207},
  keywords =  {Exergy, Thermoeconomics, Mineral depletion, Colombia, Thanatia},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2015.09.02},
  url =       {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301420715000306}

  author =      {Carter, T.},
  title =       {{An introduction to information theory and entropy}},
  institution = {CSU Stanislaus},
  year =        {2011},
  note =        {Accessed Aug. 2013},
  owner =       {alvalero},
  timestamp =   {2013.08.27},
  url =         {http://astarte.csustan.edu/~ tom/SFI-CSSS}

  title =     {Biophysical Constraints to Economic Growth},
  publisher = {Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems. (http://eolss.com)},
  year =      {2003},
  author =    {Cleveland, C.J.},
  editor =    {D. Al Gobaisi},
  comment =   {En carpeta exergy},
  file =      {Cleveland2003.pdf:\\\\Morko\\Costurbis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Cleveland2003.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero}

  author =      {Cloud, Preston},
  title =       {Entropy, materials, and posterity},
  journal =     {Geologische Rundschau},
  year =        {1977},
  volume =      {66},
  pages =       {678-696},
  note =        {10.1007/BF01989599},
  abstract =    {Rohstoffe und Energie sind die Grundlagen unseres ökonomischen Systems,
	das von den Gesetzen der Thermodynamik bestimmt wird. Es kostet Energie,
	um die auf der Erde verteilten Rohstoffe diesem System zuzuführen.
	Andererseits braucht man Rohstoffe, um die Energie nutzbar zu machen.Die
	verfügbare Energie kann nur einmal genutzt werden und das Material
	verbraucht sich. Verbrauchtes Material kann teilweise zur weiteren
	Nutzung zurückgeführt werden, das kostet wiederum Energie. Die
	verfügbare Energie nimmt überall ab, und einmal geschaffene Ordnung
	gerät wieder in Unordnung — das heißt, die Entropie des Systems
	nimmt ständig zu. Die Industrie ist jedoch abhängig von einem niedrigen
	Entropiezustand sowohl der Materie als auch der Energie.Je ärmer
	die Erze sind, um so höher wird die Energie sein, um sie in Metalle
	umzuwandeln, wobei die Entropie und die Belastung der Umwelt ständig
	zunimmt.Außer den Dingen, die wir wegen höherer ideeller Werte
	schätzen, ist eine niedrige Entropie der einzige realistische Wertmaßstab,
	und der wirkliche Wertzuwachs ist nur an einer höheren Entropie
	zu messen. Es ist unverantwortlich, Dinge, die eine höhere Entropie
	bedingen, billiger zu verkaufen oder in größerer Menge zu erzeugen,
	als unbedingt notwendig ist. Da wir dies heute in unserem Handeln
	nicht berücksichtigen, ist die derzeitige Energiekrise nur der Anfang
	einer Folge von Krisen, die Energie und Rohstoffe betreffen, solange
	wir nicht umdenken.Die Verteilung von niedriger Entropie in einer
	modernen Industriegesellschaft wird mehr oder weniger nach dem Prinzip
	der konkurrierenden Märkte erreicht. Das selbstregulierende System
	gerät jedoch mit zunehmender Polarisierung in reiche Industrienationen
	mit abnehmenden Ressourcen und armen Nationen mit geringer Industrialisierung
	in Unordnung. Dieses Prinzip berücksichtigt auch nicht die Nachwelt,
	vor allem wenn die Bevölkerungsdichte stetig zunimmt und die Konsumbedürfnisse
	anwachsen. Es sind neue soziale, ökonomische und ökologische Normen
	notwendig, die zur Populationskontrolle, zur Erhaltung der Umwelt
	und zu einem Zustand niedriger Entropie für zukünftige Generationen
	führen. Die nach uns kommenden Menschen haben ein Anrecht darauf.},
  affiliation = {University of California U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Geological Sciences 93106 Santa Barbara CA USA},
  file =        {:C\:\\datos\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Cloud1977.pdf:PDF},
  issn =        {0016-7835},
  issue =       {1},
  keyword =     {Geology},
  owner =       {alvalero},
  publisher =   {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  timestamp =   {2011.01.05}

  author =  {Connelly, L. and Coshland, C.P.},
  title =   {{Exergy and industrial ecology. Part 2: A non-dimensional analysis of means to reduce resource depletion}},
  journal = {Exergy Int. J.},
  year =    {2001},
  volume =  {1},
  number =  {4},
  pages =   {234-255},
  comment = {En carpeta exergy},
  file =    {connelly.pdf:\\\\Morko\\Costurbis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\connelly.pdf:PDF},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  author =  {Connelly, L. and Coshland, C. P.},
  title =   {Exergy and industrial ecology—Part 1: An exergy-based de?nition of consumption and a thermodynamic interpretation of ecosystem evolution},
  journal = {Exergy Int. J.},
  year =    {2001},
  volume =  {1},
  number =  {3},
  pages =   {146-165},
  comment = {En carpeta "exergy"},
  file =    {connelly1.pdf:\\\\Morko\\Costurbis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\connelly1.pdf:PDF},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  author =    {Herman E Daly},
  title =     {Is the entropy law relevant to the economics of natural resource scarcity? Yes, of course it is!},
  journal =   {Journal of Environmental Economics and Management},
  year =      {1992},
  volume =    {23},
  number =    {1},
  pages =     {91 - 95},
  issn =      {0095-0696},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2012.07.17}

  author =    {Jo Dewulf and Herman Van Langenhove and Jeroen Dirckx},
  title =     {Exergy analysis in the assessment of the sustainability of waste gas treatment systems},
  journal =   {The Science of the Total Environment},
  year =      {2001},
  volume =    {273},
  pages =     {41-52},
  abstract =  {This study focuses on the sustainability of different technological
	options for the treatment of waste gases from a
	waste water treatment plant loaded with volatile organic compounds.
	The options considered are biofiltration, active
	carbon adsorption and catalytic and thermal oxidation. The amount
	of resources and utilities to construct and
	operate each system have been investigated from the point of view
	of the Second Law of thermodynamics. The unit
	in which all resources are treated is Joules of exergy. It was concluded
	that biofiltration was the most exergetically
	efficient system. The cumulative exergy consumption of the resources
	and utilities for construction and operation
	have been quantified in exergy terms. Further on, the requirements
	for the abatement of emissions generated by
	operating the waste gas treatment systems and the amount of renewables
	have been taken into account in the
	assessment of the sustainability of the waste gas treatment technologies.
	Finally, a comparison between exergy
	analysis and life cycle analysis in assessing the sustainability of
	the waste gas treatment options, is presented.},
  file =      {:D\:\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Dewulf2001.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2009.05.11}

  author =    {Jo Dewulf and Herman Van Langenhove},
  title =     {Assessment of the Sustainability of Technology by Means of a Thermodynamically Based Life Cycle Analysis},
  journal =   {ESPR – Environ Sci \& Pollut Res},
  year =      {2002},
  volume =    {9},
  pages =     {267-273},
  abstract =  {Life cycle analysis is one of the tools in the assessment
	of the sustainability of technological options. It takes into account
	all effects on the ecosystem and the population which may
	endanger the possibilities of current and future generations. However,
	the main bottleneck in current LCA methodologies is the
	balancing of different effects, being all quantified on different
	scales. In this work, a methodology is proposed, which allows
	one to quantify different effects of the production, consumption
	and disposal of goods, and services on a single scale. The basis of
	the methodology is the second law of thermodynamics. All production,
	consumption and disposal processes affecting the ecosystem
	and the population, are quantified in terms of loss of exergy.
	The exergy content of a material is the maximum amount of energy
	which can be transformed into work at given environmental
	conditions. Next to the elaboration of the methodology, the new
	approach is illustrated by examples of the production of synthetic
	organic polymers, inorganic building insulation materials and
	different waste gas treatment options.},
  file =      {:D\:\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Dewulf2002.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2009.05.11}

  author =    {Jo Dewulf and H. van Langenhove},
  title =     {Quantitative Assessment of Solid Waste Treatment Systems in the Industrial Ecology Perspective by Exergy Analysis},
  journal =   {Environ. Sci. Technol.},
  year =      {2002},
  volume =    {36},
  pages =     {1130-1135},
  abstract =  {Solid waste treatment options (recycling, incineration, and
	landfilling; the two latter processes both with cogeneration
	of heat and electricity) have been studied for
	cardboard, newspaper, polyethylene, poly(ethylene
	terephthalate), polypropylene, polystyrene, and poly(vinyl
	chloride) waste. The conversion processes have been
	analyzed in terms of the second law of thermodynamics.
	The analysis allows calculating the exergy (useful energy)
	embodied in conversion products that can be obtained
	from the required inputs for the treatment processes. Taking
	into account the waste materials and the resources to
	convert them, it proved that recycling is the most efficient
	option for polyethylene with an efficiency of 62.5%
	versus 43.6% for incineration and 0.9% for landfilling.
	Next, waste treatment has been put into the broader
	perspective of industrial ecology. Exergetic efficiencies of
	industrial metabolic options have been calculated. Here
	resources for manufacturing and converting solid products
	have been considered. Furthermore, selection of one
	type of conversion excludes the generation of other potential
	conversion products. Therefore, it has to be taken into
	account that these latter products still have to be produced
	starting from virgin resources. Recycling proved to be
	the most efficient strategy: the ratio è between exergy
	embodied in all delivered products on one hand, and all
	exergy withdrawn from the ecosphere or from waste materials
	on the other hand, is the highest. For polyethylene, è
	proved to be 0.568, whereas è is 0.503 and 0.329 for incineration
	and landfilling, respectively. On the other hand, if R the
	ratio between exergy of delivered products on one hand
	and exergy of virgin materials on the other hand is calculated,
	the differences between the industrial metabolic options
	are larger. Recycling polyethylene showed a ratio R of 0.936,
	whereas ratios of 0.772 and 0.531 were found for
	incineration and landfilling, respectively. It has been
	shown that the exergy concept allows a quantitative
	comparison of different industrial metabolic options,
	contributing to a better assessment of sustainability of
	technology with respect to resource management.},
  file =      {:D\:\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Dewulf2002a.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2009.05.11}

  author =    {J. Dewulf and H. van Langenhove and B. van de Velde},
  title =     {Exergy-Based Efficiency and Renewability Assessment of Biofuel Production},
  journal =   {Environ. Sci. Technol.},
  year =      {2005},
  volume =    {39},
  pages =     {3878-3882},
  abstract =  {This study presents an efficiency and renewability
	analysis of the production of three biofuels: rapeseed
	methyl ester (RME), soybean methyl ester (SME) and cornbased
	ethanol (EtOH). The overall production chains
	have been taken into account: not only the agricultural
	crop production and the industrial conversion into biofuel,
	but also production of the supply of agricultural resources
	(pesticides, fertilizers, fuel, seeding material) and industrial
	resources (energy and chemicals) to transform the
	crops into biofuel. Simultaneously, byproducts of the
	agricultural and industrial processes have been taken into
	account when resources have to be allocated to the
	biofuels. The technical analysis via the second law of
	thermodynamics revealed that corn-based EtOH results in
	the highest production rate with an exergetic fuel content
	of 68.8 GJ ha-1 yr-1, whereas the RME and SME results were
	limited to 47.5 and 16.4 GJ ha-1 yr-1. The allocated
	nonrenewable resource input to deliver these biofuels is
	significant: 16.5, 15.4, and 5.6 MJ ha-1 yr-1. This means that
	these biofuels, generally considered as renewable
	resources, embed a nonrenewable fraction of one-quarter
	for EtOH and even one-third for RME and SME. This
	type of analysis provides scientifically sound quantitative
	information that is necessary with respect to the sustainability
	analysis of so-called renewable energy.},
  file =      {:D\:\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Dewulf2005.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2009.05.11}

  author =    {J . Dewulf and M.E. Bösch and B. De Meester and G. Van der Vorst and H. van Langenhove and S. Hellweg and M.A. Huijbregts},
  title =     {{Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE): a comprehensive Life Cycle Impact Assessment method for resource accounting}},
  journal =   {Environ. Sci. Technol. 2007},
  year =      {2007},
  volume =    {41},
  pages =     {8477-8483},
  abstract =  {resource-based life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method
	which is scientifically sound and that enables to assess all kinds
	of resources that are deprived from the natural ecosystem,
	all quantified on one single scale, free of weighting factors. The
	method is based on the exergy concept. Consistent exergy
	data on fossils, nuclear and metal ores, minerals, air, water, land
	occupation, and renewable energy sources were elaborated,
	with well defined system boundaries. Based on these data, the
	method quantifies the exergy “taken away” from natural
	ecosystems, and is thus called the cumulative exergy extraction
	from the natural environment (CEENE). The acquired data set
	was coupled with a state-of-the art life cycle inventory database,
	ecoinvent. In this way, the method is able to quantitatively
	distinguish eight categories of resources withdrawn from the
	natural environment: renewable resources, fossil fuels, nuclear
	energy, metal ores, minerals, water resources, land resources,
	and atmospheric resources. Third, the CEENE method is
	illustrated for a number of products that are available in
	ecoinvent, and results are compared with common resource
	oriented LCIA methods. The application to the materials in the
	ecoinvent database showed that fossil resources and land
	use are of particular importance with regard to the total CEENE
	score, although the other resource categories may also be
  file =      {:D\:\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Dewulf2007.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2009.05.11}

  author =    {J. Dewulf and G. Van der Vorst and W. Aelterman and B. De Witte and H. Vanbaelenb and H. Van Langenhove},
  title =     {Integral resource management by exergy analysis for the selection of a separation process in the pharmaceutical industry},
  journal =   {Green Chem.},
  year =      {2007},
  volume =    {9},
  pages =     {785–791},
  abstract =  {This paper reports a detailed analysis of the resource intake necessary
	for the separation of a
	mixture of diastereoisomers (2R,3R)-3-(3-methoxyphenyl)-N,N-2-trimethylpentanamine
	6 and
	(2R,3S)-3-(3-methoxyphenyl)-N,N-2-trimethylpentanamine 7 in the production
	of an active
	pharmaceutical ingredient. The resource intake analysis is based on
	exergy calculations of both
	material (chemicals) and energy (utilities) requirements. For two
	separation processes,
	crystallisation and preparative chromatography, analysis is not only
	carried out at the process
	level (a level), but also at the plant level (b level) taking into
	account the 6 preceeding synthesis
	steps towards the diastereoisomers and the supporting processes, e.g.
	for delivering heating media
	from natural gas or treating waste gases. Finally, exergetic life
	cycle analysis allowed the inclusion
	of the overall industrial metabolism (c level) that is required to
	deliver all energy and materials to
	the plant to carry out the separation.
	The results show that, in this example, the large scale chromatography
	process is not the most
	resource efficient option because of its high utilities requirement,
	despite its lower chemical
	requirement (180 MJ versus 122 MJ total requirement per mol of the
	RR stereoisomer (2R,3R)-3-
	(3-methoxyphenyl)-N,N-2-trimethylpentanamine monohydrochloride 8)
	(a level). Due to its
	higher efficiency, the plant only requires 4.6% more resources when
	it selects chromatography
	instead of crystallisation (434 versus 415 MJ total requirement per
	mol of the RR stereoisomer 8)
	(b level). Since the efficiencies of the overall industry depend on
	the type of materials and energy
	that it has to deliver to the plant, overall resource withdrawal from
	the environment differs by
	4.2% for crystallisation and chromatography (883.7 and 920.6 MJ mol21
	stereoisomer 8).
	The study has also shown that resource efficiency gain can be achieved
	by recycling solvents on
	the plant. Moreover, it is clear that there is more potential for
	resource efficiency improvement for
	the crystallisation than for chromatography because of the different
	nature of the resources
	consumed: chemicals, including solvents, versus utilities.},
  file =      {:D\:\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Dewulf2007a.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2009.05.11}

  author =    {J. Dewulf and H. van Langenhove and B. Muys and S. Bruers and B.R. Bakshi and G.F. Grubb and D.M. Paulus and E. Sciubba},
  title =     {Exergy: Its Potential and Limitations in Environmental Science and Technology},
  year =      {2008},
  volume =    {42},
  pages =     {2221-2232},
  abstract =  {New technologies, either renewables-based or not, are
	confronted with both economic and technical constraints.
	Their development takes advantage of considering the basic
	laws of economics and thermodynamics. With respect to the
	latter, the exergy concept pops up. Although its fundamentals,
	that is, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, were already
	established in the 1800s, it is only in the last years that the exergy
	concept has gained a more widespread interest in process
	analysis, typically employed to identify inefficiencies. However,
	exergy analysis today is implemented far beyond technical
	analysis; it is also employed in environmental, (thermo)economic,
	and even sustainability analysis of industrial systems. Because
	natural ecosystems are also subjected to the basic laws of
	thermodynamics, it is another subject of exergy analysis. After
	an introduction on the concept itself, this review focuses on
	the potentialandlimitations of the exergy concept in (1) ecosystem
	analysis, utilized to describe maximum storage and maximum
	dissipation of energy flows (2); industrial system analysis: from
	single process analysis to complete process chain analysis
	(3); (thermo)economic analysis, with extended exergy accounting;
	and (4) environmental impact assessment throughout the
	whole life cycle with quantification of the resource intake and
	emission effects. Apart from technical system analysis, it
	proves that exergy as a tool in environmental impact analysis
	may be the most mature field of application, particularly
	with respect to resource and efficiency accounting, one of
	Far less mature is the exergy analysis of natural ecosystems
	and the coupling with economic analysis, where a lively debate
	is presently going on about the actual merits of an exergybased
  file =      {:D\:\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Dewulf2008.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2009.05.11}

  author =    {J. Dewulf and G. Van der Vorst and N. Versele and A. Janssens and H. Van Langenhovea},
  title =     {Quantification of the impact of the end-of-life scenario on the overall resource consumption for a dwelling house},
  journal =   {Resources, Conservation and Recycling},
  year =      {2009},
  volume =    {53},
  pages =     {231-236},
  abstract =  {In this work, fractions that are the result of the demolition phase
	of a dwelling house have been investigated
	with respect to their recovery potential: stony material, wood, metals,
	glass, synthetic materials
	and a rest fraction. Depending on their nature, different alternative
	end-of-life scenarios have been investigated
	to replace disposal, such as re-use, recycling or incineration with
	heat and electricity production.
	All resources necessary for these scenarios have been inventoried.
	At the same time, those that are not
	longer necessary for the disposal and those that would have been necessary
	to make the obtained products
	from virgin resources are quantified. Based on these three items,
	the overall balance results into
	the calculation of net virgin resource savings for different end-of-life
	scenarios, quantified in Cumulative
	Exergy Consumption (MJ of exergy). For this specific case, the best
	end-of-life scenario can save virgin
	natural resources with a content of 258 GJ of exergy. Looking at the
	entire life cycle of the house, i.e.
	construction phase, use phase and end-of-life phase, the quantitative
	analysis shows a saving of virgin
	natural resources of 15% with the implementation of the best end-of-life
	scenario instead of disposal as
  file =      {:D\:\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Dewulf2009.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2009.05.11}

  author =  {I. Dincer},
  title =   {Thermodynamics, Exergy and Environmental Impact},
  journal = {Energy Sources},
  year =    {2000},
  volume =  {22},
  pages =   {723-732},
  comment = {Lo tengo en papel},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  author =   {Domínguez, Adriana and Valero, Alicia and Valero, Antonio},
  title =    {Exergy accounting applied to metallurgical systems: The case of nickel processing},
  journal =  {Energy},
  year =     {2013},
  volume =   {62},
  pages =    {37--45},
  month =    dec,
  abstract = {Abstract Exergy accounting of energy and material flows for the two main routes of nickel production (from laterites and sulphides ores) is performed so as to identify the main losses which take place in the overall chain. Accordingly, the chemical exergy of the different raw materials and utilities involved in the production of nickel is calculated. The results show that nickel processing has higher efficiencies when it is produced from sulphides than from laterites. Sulphide ore processing has efficiencies fluctuating from 0.67 to 0.79, depending on the specific technologies utilised. The higher efficiencies are reached when leaching technologies are used and on the contrary if nickel is produced from laterites, the efficiencies achieved are lower on average (0.38) due to the cost-intensive processing. The strengths and weakness of the methodology applied are discussed and compared with the exergoecology approach. If the analysis is carried out with the exergoecology methodology, the cost effectiveness of sulphides against laterites is not so evident.},
  issn =     {0360-5442},
  keywords = {Nickel mining, Exergy analysis, Metallurgical systems, Exergoecology},
  url =      {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544213002867}

  author =    {Adriana Dominguez and Lucyna Czarnowska and Alicia Valero and Wojciech Stanek and Antonio Valero},
  title =     {Thermo-ecological and exergy replacement costs of nickel processing },
  journal =   {Energy },
  year =      {2014},
  volume =    {72},
  number =    {0},
  pages =     {103 - 114},
  abstract =  {Abstract In this paper, an exergy analysis of nickel processing is
	performed through the application of two methodologies: \{TEC\} (thermo-ecological
	cost) and \{ERC\} (exergy replacement cost). The merging of both
	methodologies allows to have a complete assessment of non-fuel mineral
	processing. \{TEC\} evaluates the cumulative consumption of non-renewable
	exergy required to produce a unit of useful product from the raw
	materials contained in natural deposits, i.e. from the cradle to
	the market. It further splits the results into the fuel, mineral
	and emission components so as to show the exergy consumption resulting
	from each part, thereby identifying the types of resources that are
	being consumed in each step of the overall production process. A
	problem detected with the \{TEC\} was that the exergy associated
	with the mineral component was small compared to that of fuels. This
	is because the \{TEC\} traditionally uses the chemical exergy of
	substances in their assessment and fossil fuels eclipse any other
	raw material. In order to overcome such issue, the \{TEC\} has been
	complemented with the ERC. The latter accounts for the exergy required
	to produce minerals from a completely dispersed state to the original
	conditions in which they were originally found in nature, i.e. the
	exergy that one would consume to restore minerals from the grave
	to the cradle. Through ERC, the aim is to account for the dispersion
	problem associated with minerals, because the scarcer a mineral,
	the more exergy is associated with its replacement. Results show
	that when \{ERC\} is embedded into the \{TEC\} infrastructure, the
	impacts associated with mineral consumption are significantly greater.
	Accordingly, the inclusion of \{ERC\} into \{TEC\} allows for a more
	comprehensive consumption of non-fuel mineral resources, thereby
	providing better indications as to the achievement of a more sustainable
	production. },
  doi =       {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.05.013},
  file =      {:pdfs\\Domiguez2014.pdf:PDF},
  issn =      {0360-5442},
  keywords =  {Exergy analysis},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2014.07.12},
  url =       {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544214005623}

  author =    {Adriana Dominguez},
  title =     {Exergy cost assessment in global mining},
  school =    {Universidad de Zaragoza},
  year =      {2014},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2014.08.22}

  author =    {W.R. Dunbar and N. Lior and R. Gaggioli},
  title =     {Combining fuel cells with fuel-fired power plants for improved exergy efficiency},
  journal =   {Energy},
  year =      {1991},
  volume =    {16, 10},
  pages =     {1259-1274},
  owner =     {usuario},
  timestamp = {2013.04.19}

  author =    {W.R. Dunbar and N. Lior and R. Gaggioli},
  title =     {The component equations of energy and exergy},
  journal =   {ASME J. Energy Resources Technology},
  year =      {1992},
  volume =    {114},
  pages =     {75-83},
  owner =     {usuario},
  timestamp = {2013.04.19}

  author =    {W.R. Dunbar and S.D. Moody and N. Lior},
  title =     {Exergy analysis of an operating boiling-water-reactor nuclear power station},
  journal =   {Energy Conversion and Management},
  year =      {1995},
  volume =    {36, 3},
  pages =     {149-159},
  owner =     {usuario},
  timestamp = {2013.04.19}

  chapter =   {A biophysical approach to the economy entropy, environment and resources},
  pages =     {315-337},
  title =     {Energy and time in economic and physical resources},
  publisher = {Elsevier Science Publishers},
  year =      {1984},
  author =    {M. Faber},
  editor =    {van Gool, W. and Bruggink, J.},
  address =   {Amsterdam},
  comment =   {Referencia del apéndice de Ranz1999},
  owner =     {alvalero}

  title =     {Entropy, Environment and Resources},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  year =      {1987},
  author =    {M. Faber and H. Niemes and G. Stephan},
  address =   {Berlin, Heidelberg, New York},
  comment =   {Lo tengo en libro.},
  owner =     {alvalero}

  author =    {Font de Mora, Emilio and Torres, C. and Valero, A.},
  title =     {{Assessment of Biodiesel Energy Sustainability Using the Exergy Return on Investment Concept}},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of ECOS 2011},
  year =      {2011},
  address =   {Novi Sad, Serbia},
  month =     {4-7 July},
  file =      {:pdfs\\FontdeMora.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2014.02.11}

  author =    {Gaggioli, R. A. and Wepfer, W. J.},
  title =     {{Exergy economics}},
  journal =   {Energy},
  year =      {1980},
  volume =    {5},
  pages =     {823-837},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2013.07.31}

  author =    {Kyrke Gaudreau and Roydon A. Fraser and Stephen Murphy},
  title =     {The Tenuous Use of Exergy as a Measure of Resource Value or Waste Impact},
  journal =   {Sustainability},
  year =      {2009},
  volume =    {1},
  pages =     {1444-1463},
  file =      {Gaudreau2009.pdf:pdfs\\Gaudreau2009.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2015.11.24}

  author =    {B. Gaveau and K. Martinás and M. Moreau and J. Tóth},
  title =     {Entropy, extropy and information potential in stochastic systems far from equilibrium},
  journal =   {Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications},
  year =      {2002},
  volume =    {305},
  pages =     {445 - 466},
  abstract =  {The relations between information, entropy and energy, which are well
	known in equilibrium thermodynamics, are not clear far from equilibrium.
	Moreover, the usual expression of the classical thermodynamic potentials
	is only valid near equilibrium. In previous publications, we showed
	for a chemical system maintained far from equilibrium, that a new
	thermodynamic potential, the information potential, can be defined
	by using the stochastic formalism of the Master Equation. Here, we
	extend this theory to a completely general discrete stochastic system.
	For this purpose, we use the concept of extropy, which is defined
	in classical thermodynamics as the total entropy produced in a system
	and in the reservoirs during their equilibration. We show that the
	statistical equivalent of the thermodynamic extropy is the relative
	information. If a coarse-grained description by means of the thermodynamic
	extensive variables is available (which is the case for many macroscopic
	systems) the coarse-grained statistical extropy allows one to define
	the information potential in the thermodynamic limit. Using this
	potential, we study the evolution of such systems towards a non-equilibrium
	stationary state. We derive a general thermodynamic inequality between
	energy dissipation and information dissipation, which sharpens the
	law of the maximum available work for non-equilibrium systems.},
  file =      {:C\:\\datos\\Tesis\\Biblio\\pdfs\\Gaveau2002.pdf:PDF},
  issn =      {0378-4371},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2012.06.14}

  title =     {The Entropy Law and the Economic Process},
  publisher = {Harvard University Press},
  year =      {1971},
  author =    {N. Georgescu-Roegen},
  address =   {Cambridge Massachussets, London England},
  comment =   {Lo tengo en libro},
  owner =     {alvalero}

  author =    {Stefan Gößling-Reisemann},
  title =     {{Combining LCA with thermodynamics}},
  journal =   {Information Technologies in Environmental Engineering},
  year =      {2008},
  volume =    {1},
  pages =     {19-22},
  abstract =  {Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the most promising methodology
	to assess environmental impacts of products, services and processes.
	Its scope of application is constantly evolving, including e.g.
	application to regional scales and assessing societal consumption
	patterns. Apart from considering environmental impacts, extensions
	to the methodology including social and economic impacts
	are currently being discussed. One of those impacts is resource
	consumption. It has been argued that the methods for assessing
	resource consumption in LCA must come from thermodynamics,
	and must take account of the second law of thermodynamics (entropy
	law). The challenge arising from this, especially in respect to
	its application and software implementation, is the increase in data
	requirements. While already being a data intensive methodology,
	including a thermodynamic measure for resource consumption in
	LCA will increase the data that needs to be handled significantly.
	This can only be managed by employing thermodynamic data bases
	and combining these with dedicated LCA software. I will present
	an approach that makes use of the scriptability of a commercial
	LCA software (Umberto®) and combines LCA data with thermodynamic
	data where values are stored in a parameterised form. The
	script then calculates the thermodynamically defined resource consumption
	and makes it available to the visualisation and analysis
	tools in the LCA software. Processes from the metallurgical sector
	serve as an illustrative case study.},
  file =      {:C\:\\datos\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Gossling-Reisemann2008.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2010.11.22}

  author =  {Gong, M. and Wall, G.},
  title =   {On exergy and sustainable development.- Part two: indicators and methods},
  journal = {Exergy Int. J.},
  year =    {2001},
  volume =  {1},
  number =  {4},
  pages =   {217-233},
  file =    {gong.pdf:\\\\Morko\\Costurbis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\gong.pdf:PDF},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  author =  {van Gool, W.},
  title =   {Thermodynamics of chemical references for exergy analysis },
  journal = {Energy Conversion and Management},
  year =    {1998},
  volume =  {39},
  number =  {16-18},
  pages =   {1719-1728},
  file =    {W. Van Gool.pdf:\\\\Morko\\Costurbis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\W. Van Gool.pdf:PDF},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  author =    {O.A. Hamed and A.M. Zamamiri and S. Aly and N. Lior},
  title =     {Thermal performance and exergy analysis of a thermal vapor compression desalination system},
  journal =   {Energy Conversion and Management},
  year =      {1996},
  volume =    {37},
  pages =     {379-387},
  owner =     {usuario},
  timestamp = {2013.04.19}

  author =    {J.L. Hau and B.R. Bakshi},
  title =     {Expanding Exergy Analysis to Account for Ecosystem Products and Services},
  journal =   {Environ. Sci. Technol.},
  year =      {2004},
  volume =    {38},
  pages =     {3768-3777},
  file =      {:D\:\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Hau2004.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2009.12.10}

  author =  {W. A. Hermann},
  title =   {Quantifying global exergy resources},
  journal = {Energy},
  year =    {2006},
  volume =  {31},
  pages =   {1685-1702},
  comment = {Está en el sciencedirect y yo lo tengo en papel},
  file =    {Hermann2006.pdf:D\:\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Hermann2006.pdf:PDF},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  author =  {Holland, T. J. B.},
  title =   {{Dependance of entropy on volume for silicate and oxide minerals. A review and a predicture model}},
  journal = {Amer. Miner.},
  year =    {1989},
  volume =  {74},
  pages =   {5-13},
  comment = {Referencia para calcular s de la nontronite e hidrobiotite.},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  author =    {Hueting, R.},
  title =     {{Calculating a Sustainable National Income: A Practical Solution for a Theoretical Dilemma}},
  booktitle = {Entropy and BioEconomics: Proceedings of the First International Conference of the European Association for Bioeconomic Studies},
  year =      {1993},
  pages =     {322-343},
  address =   {Rome},
  month =     {28-30 November},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2012.08.02}

  author =    {Jorgensen, S.E.},
  title =     {Exergy of an isolated living system may increase},
  booktitle = {Advances in Energy Studies. 2º International Workshop},
  year =      {2000},
  editor =    {Sergio Ulgiati},
  pages =     {573/578},
  publisher = {SGEditoriali Padova},
  note =      {Porto Venere, Italy May 23/27, 2000},
  owner =     {agracia}

  title =     {Eco-Exergy as Sustainability},
  publisher = {WIT Press},
  year =      {2006},
  author =    {S.E. Jorgensen},
  editor =    {E. Tiezzi},
  address =   {UK},
  comment =   {Tenemos el libro},
  owner =     {alvalero}

  author =    {Elias L. Khalil},
  title =     {Entropy law and exhaustion of natural resources Is Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen's paradigm defensible?},
  journal =   {Ecological Economics},
  year =      {1990},
  volume =    {2},
  number =    {2},
  pages =     {163 - 178},
  abstract =  {I examine whether the entropy law dictates absolute limits to growth.
	I distinguish the entropy law proper - diffusion without coherent
	work - from its application, the Carnot cycle - diffusion with coherent
	work. While the entropy law pertains to mechanistic systems, the
	Carnot cycle is the result of purposeful agency. Since the economic
	process is carried out by purposeful agency to generate coherent
	work, it is not governed by the entropy law. Rather, it resembles
	the Carnot cycle. Resources hence cannot be defined objectively à
	la the entropy law. Resources can only be defined relative to the
	purposeful agency. Thus, the prognosticators of doom, like Georgescu-Roegen,
	cannot be bolstered by the entropy law.},
  file =      {:C\:\\datos\\Tesis\\Biblio\\pdfs\\Khalil1990.pdf:PDF},
  issn =      {0921-8009},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2012.06.14}

  author =    {Reiner Kuemmel},
  title =     {Energy as a factor of production and entropy as a pollution indicator in macroeconomic modelling},
  journal =   {Ecological Economics},
  year =      {1989},
  volume =    {1},
  number =    {2},
  pages =     {161 - 180},
  abstract =  {Fluctuating energy prices and the environment's limited capacity for
	absorbing pollution constitute significant uncertainties for future
	industrial evolution. Solving a set of differential equations and
	using the Simplex algorithm in linear programming we look into the
	questions how changing energy inputs and prices have affected industrial
	growth in the past, and how the energy system can be optimized so
	that pollution becomes minimum in the future. We obtain production
	functions which depend linearly on energy and exponentially on the
	ratios of labor/capital and energy/capital. They describe well the
	growth of output in West Germany and the U.S.A. during the last two
	decades and the responses to theenergy price explosions. Energy conservation
	was an important response element. The most optimistic possible savings
	of primary energy by heat exchangers, heat pumps and cogeneration
	at (the present) fixed energy demand profiles are computed to be
	54% in the Netherlands, 36% in West Germany, and 59% in Japan. A
	pollution indicator “entropy production� is proposed and incorporated
	in a model of enviromental constraints on industrial growth.},
  issn =      {0921-8009},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2012.07.05}

  title =     {The Second Law of Economics: Energy, Entropy, and the Origins of Wealth},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year =      {2011},
  author =    {Kümmel, Reiner},
  series =    {The Frontiers Collection},
  address =   {Heidelberg},
  file =      {:pdfs\\Kummel2011.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2014.04.15}

  author =    {N. Lior},
  title =     {Energy, exergy, and thermoeconomic analysis of the effects of fossil-fuel superheating in nuclear power plants},
  journal =   {Energy C},
  year =      {1997},
  volume =    {38},
  pages =     {1585-1593},
  owner =     {usuario},
  timestamp = {2013.04.19}

  author =    {N. Lior},
  title =     {Thoughts about future power generation systems and the role of exergy analysis in their development},
  journal =   {Energy Conversion and Management},
  year =      {2002},
  volume =    {43},
  pages =     {1187-1198},
  owner =     {usuario},
  timestamp = {2013.04.19}

  author =    {N. Lior and H.S. Al-Sharqawi},
  title =     {Exergy analysis of flow dehumidification by solid desiccants},
  journal =   {Energy},
  year =      {2005},
  volume =    {30, 6},
  pages =     {915-931},
  owner =     {usuario},
  timestamp = {2013.04.19}

  author =    {N. Lior and W. Sarmiento-Darkin and H.S. Al-Sharqawi},
  title =     {The exergy fields in transport processes: Their calculation and use},
  journal =   {Energy},
  year =      {2006},
  volume =    {31},
  pages =     {553-578},
  owner =     {usuario},
  timestamp = {2013.04.19}

  author =    {N. Lior and N. Zhang},
  title =     {Energy, exergy, and Second Law performance criteria},
  journal =   {Energy},
  year =      {2007},
  volume =    {32, 4},
  pages =     {281-296},
  owner =     {usuario},
  timestamp = {2013.04.19}

  author =    {Lozano, M.A and Valero, A.},
  title =     {Methodology for calculating exergy in chemical processes},
  booktitle = {ASME. AES},
  year =      {1988},
  editor =    {Wepfer, W.J. and Tsatsaronis, G. and Bajura, R.A.},
  volume =    {4},
  number =    {600449},
  owner =     {alvalero}

  author =    {Katalin Martinas and Marek Frankowicz},
  title =     {Extropy - Reformulation of the Entropy Principle},
  journal =   {Per. Pol. Chem. Eng.},
  year =      {2000},
  volume =    {44},
  number =    {1},
  pages =     {29-38},
  file =      {:C\:\\datos\\Tesis\\Biblio\\pdfs\\Martinas2005.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2012.06.14}

  author =    {A. Martinez},
  title =     {Exergy costs assessment of water bodies: Physical Hydronomics},
  school =    {Universidad de Zaragoza},
  year =      {2009},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2010.07.08}

  author =    {A. Martínez and J. Uche and A. Valero and A. Valero-Delgado},
  title =     {Environmental costs of a river watershed within the European water framework directive: Results from physical hydronomics},
  journal =   {Energy},
  year =      {2010},
  volume =    {35},
  number =    {2},
  pages =     {1008 - 1016},
  note =      {ECOS 2008, 21st International Conference, on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems},
  abstract =  {Physical hydronomics (PH) is the specific application of thermodynamics
	that physically characterizes the governance of water bodies, i.e.,
	the Water Framework Directive (WFD) for European Union citizens.
	In this paper, calculation procedures for the exergy analysis of
	river basins are developed within the WFD guidelines and a case study
	is developed. Therefore, it serves as an example for the feasible
	application of PH in the environmental cost assessment of water bodies,
	accordingly to the principle of recovery of the costs related to
	water services in accordance with the polluter pays principle, one
	of the milestones of the WFD. The Foix River watershed, a small river
	located at the Inland Basins of Catalonia (IBC), has been analyzed.
	Main results, difficulties, and constraints encountered are shown
	in the paper. Following WFD's quantity and quality objectives previously
	defined, water costs are calculated and the equivalence between the
	exergy loss due to water users and the exergy variation along the
	river are also analyzed.},
  file =      {:C\:\\datos\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Martinez2010.pdf:PDF},
  issn =      {0360-5442},
  keywords =  {Exergy},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2011.01.12}

  author =    {Mcmahon, G. F. and Mrozek, J. R.},
  title =     {Economics, entropy and sustainability},
  journal =   {Hydrological Sciences-Journal-des Sciences Hydrologiques},
  year =      {1997},
  volume =    {42},
  number =    {4},
  pages =     {501-512},
  month =     {August},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2012.07.30}

  author =    {B. De Meester and J. Dewulf and A. Janssens and H. van Langenhove},
  title =     {An Improved Calculation of the Exergy of Natural Resources for Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment (ELCA)},
  journal =   {Environ. Sci. Technol.},
  year =      {2006},
  volume =    {40},
  pages =     {6844-6851},
  abstract =  {The focus in environmental research is shifting from
	emission abatement to critical process analysis, including
	assessment of resource consumption. The exergy theory
	offers a thermodynamic methodology to account for
	the consumption of natural resources. However, exergy
	data on mineral resources available in the literature are
	inadequate to apply to exergetic life cycle analysis, due to
	incompleteness, inconsistencies, and a dated thermochemical
	basis. An uncertainty assessment of the data has
	to be performed as well. In this work, three recent
	thermochemical databases were applied to evaluate the
	chemical exergy of 85 elements and 73 minerals, 21 of which
	had not yet been quantified in the literature. The process
	required the choice of a new reference species for
	aluminum. Muscovite was selected, giving rise to a chemical
	exergy of 809.4 kJ/mol for aluminum. The theory proved
	to be robust for the exergy of chemical elements, as exergy
	values differing by 1.2% on average from most recent
	literature were found. On the contrary, the exergy values
	for minerals differed by factors up to 14 from literature values,
	due to the application of recent thermochemical values
	and consistently selected reference species. The consistent
	dataset of this work will enable straightforward resource
	intake evaluation through an exergetic life cycle assessment.},
  file =      {:D\:\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Meester2006.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2009.05.11}

  author =    {B. De Meester and J. Dewulf and S. Verbekea and A. Janssensb and H. Van Langenhove},
  title =     {Exergetic life-cycle assessment (ELCA) for resource consumption evaluation in the built environment},
  journal =   {Building and Environment 44},
  year =      {2009},
  volume =    {44},
  pages =     {11-17},
  abstract =  {Resource management becomes a key issue in the development of sustainable
	technology. This paper envisages a quantification of all
	energy and material needs for a family dwelling, both for the construction
	aspects (‘embodied energy and materials’) and usage aspects.
	To do so, an exergetic life-cycle assessment has been carried out
	that enables the quantification of all necessary natural energy
	and material resources simultaneously. The case study covered 65 optimized
	Belgian family dwelling types with low energy input
	(56 MJ/(m3 year)). The study shows that cumulative annual exergy demand
	is of the order of 65 GJexergy/year, with a limited dependency
	on the construction type: cavity wall, external insulation or wooden
	frame. For the cavity wall and external insulation building type,
	inputs are dominant for the construction with 85–86% of the total
	exergy to be extracted out of the environment. For the
	wooden frame, non-renewable resource intake for construction remains
	62%. Despite the low-energy building type, heating requirements
	during the use phase are dominant in the overall resource intake with
	a 60% of the total annual exergy consumption. In order to make
	family dwellings less fossil resource dependant, the study learns
	that particularly reduction of heating requirements should be envisaged.},
  file =      {:D\:\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Meester2009.pdf:PDF;Meester2009.pdf:pdfs\\Meester2009.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2009.05.11}

  author =    {Muys, B. and Wagendrop, T and Aerts, R. and García Quijano, J.},
  title =     {Ecological sustainability assessment of carbon sequestration and substitution projects using the exergy concept},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Conference Carbon sinks and Biodiversity, Liège},
  year =      {2001},
  month =     {Oct.},
  file =      {Muys2001.pdf:\\\\Morko\\Costurbis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Muys2001.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero}

  author =  {Pruschek, V.R.},
  title =   {Die exergie der kernbrennstoffe, The exergy of nuclear fuel },
  journal = {Brennstoff-Wärme-Kraft },
  year =    {1970},
  volume =  {22},
  number =  {9},
  pages =   {429-434},
  file =    {Pruscheck1970.pdf:\\\\Morko\\Costurbis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Pruscheck1970.pdf:PDF},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  author =    {Rivero, R. and Montero, G. and Garfias, M.},
  title =     {The effect of environmental temperature on the chemical exergy of hydrocarbons},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of ECOS 2002},
  year =      {2002},
  volume =    {1},
  pages =     {69-78},
  address =   {Berlin},
  month =     {3-5 July},
  owner =     {alvalero}

  author =    {Rivero, R. and Garfias, M.},
  title =     {{Standard Chemical Exergy Updated. Part II}},
  booktitle = {Energy-Efficient, Cost-Effective, and Environmentally-Sustainable Systems and Processes},
  year =      {2004},
  editor =    {R. Rivero and L. Monroy and R. Pulido and G. Tsatsaronis},
  volume =    {2},
  pages =     {773-785},
  owner =     {alvalero}

  author =  {Rosen, M.A. and Dincer, I. },
  title =   {Exergy analysis of waste emissions },
  journal = {International journal of energy research },
  year =    {1999},
  volume =  {23},
  number =  {13},
  pages =   {1153-1163 },
  file =    {Rosen1999.pdf:\\\\Morko\\Costurbis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Rosen1999.pdf:PDF},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  author =  {Rosen, M.A.},
  title =   {Can exergy help us understand and address environmental concerns?},
  journal = {Exergy},
  year =    {2002},
  volume =  {2},
  pages =   {214-217},
  file =    {rosenexergy.pdf:\\\\Morko\\Costurbis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\rosenexergy.pdf:PDF},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  author =  {Wright S.E. and Rosen M.A. },
  title =   {Energetic efficiencies and the exergy content of terrestrial solar radiation},
  journal = {Journal of Solar Energy Engineering },
  year =    {2004},
  volume =  {126},
  number =  {1},
  pages =   {673-676 },
  file =    {Wright2004.pdf:\\\\Morko\\Costurbis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Wright2004.pdf:PDF},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  chapter =   {{Temperature, Biogenesis and Biospheric Self-Organization}},
  pages =     {207-217},
  title =     {{Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and the Production of Entropy: Life, Earth and Beyond}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year =      {2005},
  author =    {Schwartzman, D., Lineweaver C.H.},
  editor =    {A. Kleidon and R. Lorenz},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2011.07.18}

  author =    {Sciubba, E.},
  title =     {{Beyond Thermoeconomics? The concept of Extended Exergy Accounting and its application to the analysis and design of thermal systems}},
  journal =   {Exergy},
  year =      {2001},
  volume =    {1},
  number =    {2},
  pages =     {68-84},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2012.08.06}

  author =  {Sciubba, E.},
  title =   {Extended exergy accounting applied to energy recovery from waste: The concept of total recycling},
  journal = {Energy},
  year =    {2003},
  volume =  {28},
  pages =   {1315-1334},
  file =    {Sciubba[3].pdf:\\\\Morko\\Costurbis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Sciubba[3].pdf:PDF},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  author =    {Sciubba, E.},
  title =     {{A Thermodynamically Correct Treatment of Externalities with an Exergy-Based Numéraire}},
  journal =   {Sustainability},
  year =      {2012},
  volume =    {4},
  pages =     {933-957},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2012.08.06}

  author =    {Serova, E.N. and Brodianski, V.M.},
  title =     {The concept "environment" in exergy analysis (some special cases)},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of ECOS 2002},
  year =      {2002},
  volume =    {1},
  pages =     {79-82},
  address =   {Berlin},
  owner =     {alvalero}

  author =  {Shieh, J.H. and Fan, L.T.},
  title =   {Estimation of energy (enthalpy) and exergy (availability) contents in structurally complicated materials },
  journal = {Energy Sources},
  year =    {1982},
  volume =  {6},
  number =  {1},
  pages =   {1-46},
  file =    {Shieh1982.pdf:\\\\Morko\\Costurbis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Shieh1982.pdf:PDF},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  author =    {Ludovico Susani and Federico M. Pulselli and Sven E. Jørgensen and Simone Bastianoni},
  title =     {Comparison between technological and ecological exergy},
  journal =   {Ecological Modelling},
  year =      {2006},
  volume =    {193},
  number =    {3–4},
  pages =     {447 - 456},
  abstract =  {Exergy function was basically developed in the fields of engineering
	and is the most useful function to solve problems related to cost-optimization
	procedures of energy conversion systems and energy policies. However,
	in the last decades, this function has also been proposed as a tool
	able to study complex systems, such as ecological systems. The exergy
	function proposed by Jørgensen, called eco-exergy, is investigated
	in this paper because of its formulation that differs from the classical
	one. The two main differences are in the changed reference state,
	which is more useful for ecological applications, and the contribution
	of informational exergy that is taken into account. This paper shows
	how moving from macroscopic to microscopic information storage the
	exergetic contribution due to information grows and it becomes even
	three orders of magnitude higher than physical one in the more complex
	living systems. The capacity of packaging information at the molecular
	level (DNA) that differs from one organism to another can be taken
	into account using eco-exergy function.},
  file =      {:C\:\\datos\\Tesis\\Biblio\\pdfs\\Susani2006.pdf:PDF},
  issn =      {0304-3800},
  keywords =  {Exergy},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2012.06.14}

  author =  {Yuri Svirezhev},
  title =   {Exergy of the Biosphere},
  journal = {Ecological Modelling},
  year =    {1997},
  volume =  {96},
  pages =   {309-310},
  file =    {Svirezhev1996.pdf:\\\\Morko\\costurbis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Svirezhev1996.pdf:PDF},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  author =    {Yuri M. Svirezhev},
  title =     {Thermodynamics and ecology},
  journal =   {Ecological Modelling},
  year =      {2000},
  volume =    {132},
  number =    {1-2},
  pages =     {11 - 22},
  abstract =  {How to apply thermodynamic methods and concepts to ecology, how to
	describe the ecosystem's behaviour in terms of physics (and particularly,
	thermodynamics), what kind of physical criteria can be used for estimation
	of anthropogenic impact on ecosystems? — I try to answer these
	questions in this manuscript. From the viewpoint of thermodynamics,
	any ecosystem is an open system far from thermodynamic equilibrium,
	in which entropy production is balanced by the outflow of entropy
	to the environment. I suggest the ‘entropy pump’ hypothesis:
	the climatic, hydrological, soil and other environmental conditions
	are organised in such a way that only a natural ecosystem which is
	specific for these conditions can be in the dynamic equilibrium (steady-state).
	In the framework of this hypothesis I can calculate the entropy production
	for the ecosystem under anthropogenic stress. This approach was applied
	to the analysis of crop production in Hungary in the 1980s. Considering
	systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium we can prove that the
	so-called exergy is a functional of a dissipative function, which
	is undertaken along the trajectory from a thermodynamic equilibrium
	to a dynamic one. It was shown there is a close connection between
	the measure of additional information (Kullback's measure) and exergy.},
  issn =      {0304-3800},
  keywords =  {Thermodynamics},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2012.10.07}

  author =    {Swenson, R.},
  title =     {{Emergence and the principle of maximum entropy production: Multi-level system Meeting of the International Society for General Systems Research, 32.theory, evolution, and non-equilibrium thermodynamics}},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Meeting of the International Society for General Systems Research},
  year =      {1988},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2011.07.18}

  author =  {Szargut, J.},
  title =   {Global implications of the second law of thermodynamics},
  journal = {Exergy, Energy System Analysis, and Optimization., from Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK; Online encyclopedia: http://www.eolss.net},
  year =    {2003},
  note =    {Retrieved May 19, 2005},
  file =    {Szargut_eolss.pdf:\\\\Morko\\Costurbis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Szargut_eolss.pdf:PDF},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  author =  {Szargut, J.},
  title =   {Exergy balance of metallurgical processes},
  journal = {Archiwum Hutnictwa},
  year =    {1961},
  volume =  {6},
  number =  {1},
  pages =   {23-60},
  note =    {In Polish}

  author =  {J. Szargut and T. Styrylska},
  title =   {Approximate evaluation of the exergy of fuels},
  journal = {Brennst. Waerme Kraft},
  year =    {1964},
  volume =  {16},
  number =  {12},
  pages =   {589-596},
  note =    {{In German}},
  comment = {Referencia de Stepanov1995},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  author =  {Szargut, J. and Morris, D.R.},
  title =   {Calculation of standard chemical exergy of some elements and their compounds based upon seawater as the datum level substance},
  journal = {Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Techical Sciences.},
  year =    {1985},
  volume =  {33},
  number =  {5-6},
  pages =   {293-305}

  author =  {Szargut, J.},
  title =   {Standard Chemical Exergy of Some Elements and their Compounds, based upon the Concentration in Earth's Crust},
  journal = {Geochemistry International},
  year =    {1987},
  volume =  {35},
  number =  {1-2},
  pages =   {53-60}

  author =    {Szargut, J. and Morris, D.},
  title =     {{Cumulative Exergy Consumption and Cumulative Degree of Perfection of Chemical Processes}},
  journal =   {International Journal of Ener},
  year =      {1987},
  volume =    {11},
  pages =     {245-261},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2012.08.06}

  title =     {Exergy analysis of thermal, chemical, and metallurgical processes},
  publisher = {Hemisphere Publishing Corporation},
  year =      {1988},
  author =    {Szargut, J. and Morris, D. and Steward, F.},
  editor =    {Szargut, J.},
  owner =     {alvalero}

  author =  {J. Szargut},
  title =   {Anthropogenic and natural exergy losses (exergy balance of the earth's surface and atmosphere)},
  journal = {Energy},
  year =    {2003},
  volume =  {28},
  pages =   {1047-1054},
  file =    {Szargut2003.pdf:D\:\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Szargut2003.pdf:PDF},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  title =     {Exergy method: technical and ecological applications},
  publisher = {WIT-press},
  year =      {2005},
  author =    {Szargut, J.},
  address =   {Ashurst, UK},
  comment =   {Tengo el libro}

  author =  {Tananaev, I. V. and Orlovskii, V. P. and Kourbanov, K. M. and Khalikov, B. S. and Osmanov, S. O. and Bulgakov, V. I.},
  title =   {{Evolution of the enthalpy at 298K and entropy at 298K of scandium, yttrium and lanthanide orthophosphates}},
  journal = {Doklady Akademia Nauk Tadzhirghistan S.S.S.R},
  year =    {1974},
  volume =  {17},
  number =  {42-44},
  comment = {Referencia para calcular hf de la weinschenkite},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  author =    {P.A. Trubaev},
  title =     {Exergy analysis of thermal processes in the building materials industry},
  journal =   {Theoretical Foundations of Chemical Engineering},
  year =      {2006},
  volume =    {40},
  number =    {2},
  pages =     {175-182},
  file =      {:D\:\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Trubaev2006.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2008.12.30}

  author =    {Georgios Tsatsaronis and Michael Winhold},
  title =     {{Exergoeconomic analysis and evaluation of energy-conversion plants--I. A new general methodology}},
  journal =   {Energy},
  year =      {1985},
  volume =    {10},
  number =    {1},
  pages =     {69 - 80},
  abstract =  {A new approach to the combination of exergetic and economic analysis
	(exergoeconomic analysis) for the investigation of energy-conversion
	processes is presented. This approach allows the monetary evaluation
	of costs caused by irreversibilities (exergy losses), as well as
	comparisons between these costs and the investment and operating
	costs for each component of a plant. The present analysis permits
	identification and evaluation of inefficiencies in an energy-conversion
	plant and of opportunities for improvement.},
  issn =      {0360-5442},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2011.07.11}

  author =    {George Tsatsaronis},
  title =     {Definitions and nomenclature in exergy analysis and exergoeconomics},
  journal =   {Energy},
  year =      {2007},
  volume =    {32},
  number =    {4},
  pages =     {249 - 253},
  note =      {ECOS 05. 18th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation, and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems},
  abstract =  {This paper presents the definitions of some terms used in exergy analysis
	and exergy costing, discusses options for the symbols to be used
	for exergy and some exergoeconomic variables, and presents the nomenclature
	for the remaining terms.},
  issn =      {0360-5442},
  keywords =  {Total energy},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2011.07.11}

  author =    {Valero, A. and Lozano, M. and Muñoz, M.},
  title =     {{A general theory of exergy saving. I. On the exergetic cost}},
  booktitle = {Computer-Aided Engineering and Energy Systems. Second Law Analysis and Modelling},
  year =      {1986},
  editor =    {R. Gaggioli},
  volume =    {3},
  number =    {ASME Book No. H0341C},
  pages =     {1-8},
  note =      {{Edward F. Obert award. Best paper on energy systems analysis. American Society of Mechanical Engineers}},
  owner =     {alvalero}

  author =    {Valero, A. and Arauzo, I.},
  title =     {Exergy outcomes associated with the greenhouse effects},
  booktitle = {AES, Second Analysis-Industrial and Environmental Applications},
  year =      {1991},
  editor =    {Reistad, G.M. and Moran, M.J. and Wepfer, W.J. and Lior, N.},
  volume =    {25},
  pages =     {63-70},
  publisher = {The American Society of Mechanical Engineers},
  owner =     {alvalero}

  author =    {Antonio Valero and Edgar Botero and Luis Serra},
  title =     {{The Exergy Replacement Cost of the World’s Renewable Water Resources and Ice Sheets}},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of ECOS 2002},
  year =      {2002},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2014.01.07}

  author =       {Valero D., A. and Valero, A. and Martinez, A.},
  title =        {{Exergy evaluation of the mineral capital on Earth. Influence of the reference environment}},
  booktitle =    {Proceedings of IMECE 2005},
  year =         {2005},
  address =      {Orlando, USA},
  month =        {5-11 November},
  organization = {ASME},
  file =         {IMECE2005-79715.pdf:D\:\\Conferencias y artículos\\ASME 2005\\IMECE2005-79715.pdf:PDF},
  owner =        {alvalero}

  author =  {Valero, A. and Botero, E.},
  title =   {An assessment of the earth's clean fossil exergy capital based on exergy abatement costs},
  journal = {Energy System Analysis, and Optimization., from Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO},
  year =    {2003},
  note =    {Retrieved May 2005},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  author =  {Valero, A. and Botero, E. and Valero D., Alicia},
  title =   {Exergy accounting of natural resources},
  journal = {Exergy, Energy System Analysis, and Optimization., from Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK; Online encyclopedia: http://www.eolss.net},
  year =    {2003},
  note =    {Retrieved May 19, 2005},
  file =    {E3-19-05-06-TXTtrkchgs.pdf:\\\\Morko\\Costurbis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\E3-19-05-06-TXTtrkchgs.pdf:PDF},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  author =       {Valero D., A. and Valero, A. and Martínez, A. and Mudd, G.M.},
  title =        {{A physical way to assess the decrease of mineral capital through exergy. The Australian case}},
  booktitle =    {Proceedings of ISEE 2006},
  year =         {2006},
  address =      {New Delhi, India},
  month =        {15-18 December},
  organization = {Ninth Biennial Conference on the International Society for Ecological Economics (ISEE). ``Ecological Sustainability and Human Well-being''},
  owner =        {alvalero}

  author =       {Valero D., A. and Valero, A. and Arauzo, I.},
  title =        {{Exergy as an indicator for resources scarcity. The exergy loss of Australian mineral capital, a case study}},
  booktitle =    {Proceedings of IMECE2006},
  year =         {2006},
  address =      {Chicago, USA},
  month =        {5-10 November},
  organization = {ASME},
  owner =        {alvalero}

  author =    {Valero D., Alicia and Valero, A. and Arauzo, I.},
  title =     {{Evolution of the decrease in mineral exergy throughout the 20th century. The case of copper in the US}},
  booktitle = {Inproceedings of ECOS 2006},
  year =      {2006},
  address =   {Aghia Pelagia, Crete, Greece},
  month =     {July 12-14},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2014.08.21}

  author =    {Valero, A. and Uche, J. and Valero D., A. and Martínez, A. and Escriu, J.},
  title =     {{Physical Hydronomics: application of the exergy analysis to the assessment of environmental costs of water bodies. The case of the Inland Basins of Catalonia}},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of ECOS 2007},
  year =      {2007},
  volume =    {I},
  pages =     {683-692},
  file =      {ECOS07-K03.pdf:D\:\\Conferencias y artículos\\ECOS 2007\\ECOS07-K03.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero}

  author =  {Valero D., Alicia and Valero, A. and Arauzo, I.},
  title =   {{Evolution of the decrease in mineral exergy throughout the 20th century. The case of copper in the US}},
  journal = {Energy},
  year =    {2008},
  volume =  {33},
  number =  {2},
  pages =   {107-115},
  file =    {Valero2008.pdf:D\:\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Valero2008.pdf:PDF},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  author =       {Valero, Antonio. and Valero D., Alicia and Torres, Cesar},
  title =        {{Exergy and the Hubbert peak. An extended analysis for the assessment of the scarcity of minerals on earth}},
  booktitle =    {Proceedings of IMECE 2008},
  year =         {2008},
  address =      {Boston, USA},
  month =        {31 October - 6 November},
  organization = {ASME},
  owner =        {alvalero}

  author =  {Valero D., Alicia},
  title =   {Exergy evolution of the mineral capital on earth},
  school =  {University of Zaragoza},
  year =    {2008},
  address = {Zaragoza, Spain},
  month =   {July},
  file =    {book.pdf:D\:\\Tesis\\Documento\\Pdf\\TeX\\book.pdf:PDF},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  author =               {Valero, Antonio and Valero D., Alicia},
  title =                {Exergoecology: A thermodynamic approach for accounting the Earth's mineral capital. The case of bauxite-aluminium and limestone-lime chains},
  journal =              {Energy},
  year =                 {2009},
  month =                {October},
  abstract =             {As man extracts minerals, the natural deposits become depleted in
	quantity and concentration, and hence the mineral wealth of the Earth
	decreases. This paper explains the exergoecological method used for
	calculating the mineral exergy bonus that Nature gives us for free
	for providing minerals concentrated in mines and not dispersed in
	the Earth's crust. The method is based on two concepts: Exergy and
	the Exergy cost. Exergy measures the minimum (reversible) work required
	to extract and concentrate the materials from a Reference Environment
	(RE) to the conditions found in Nature. This RE can be approximated
	to a completely degraded crepuscular planet with the absence of fossil
	fuels and mineral deposits. And the exergy cost accounts for the
	actual exergy required for accomplishing the same process with available
	technologies. These costs are complementary to the conventional extraction,
	land-recovering, processing and refining costs. The case studies
	of two industrial chains: bauxite–alumina–aluminium, and limestone–calcite–lime
	are presented and discussed. As the method provides values in energy
	units, the annual exergy decrease in the mineral endowment of the
	planet due to the extraction of minerals can now take into account
	the fossil fuel's exergy as well as the non-fuel mineral exergy costs.},
  citeulike-article-id = {5924815},
  citeulike-linkout-0 =  {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2009.09.013},
  citeulike-linkout-1 =  {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0360544209003995},
  day =                  {08},
  issn =                 {03605442},
  owner =                {alvalero},
  posted-at =            {2010-08-04 11:52:14},
  timestamp =            {2010.09.20}

  author =    {Valero D., Alicia and Antonio Valero and Gavin M. Mudd},
  title =     {{Exergy - A Useful Indicator for the Sustainability of Mineral Resources and Mining}},
  booktitle = {Inproceedings of SDIMI Conference},
  year =      {2009},
  address =   {Gold Coast, QLD, 6 - 8 July 2009},
  note =      {Selected as one of the top 5 papers (among more than 500) of the AusIMM conferences for 2009},
  file =      {:D\:\\Conferencias y artículos\\Queensland\\final\\Valero.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2010.09.23}

  author =    {Antonio Valero and Javier Uche and Valero D., Alicia and Amaya Martínez},
  title =     {{Physical Hydronomics: Application of the exergy analysis to the assessment of environmental costs of water bodies. The case of the inland basins of Catalonia}},
  journal =   {Energy},
  year =      {2009},
  volume =    {34},
  number =    {12},
  pages =     {2101-2107},
  month =     {December},
  file =      {:C\:\\datos\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Valero2009d.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2010.11.25}

  author =               {Valero D., Alicia and Valero, Antonio},
  title =                {Physical geonomics: Combining the exergy and Hubbert peak analysis for predicting mineral resources depletion},
  journal =              {Resources, Conservation and Recycling},
  year =                 {2010},
  month =                {April},
  abstract =             {This paper shows how thermodynamics and in particular the exergy analysis
	can help to assess the degradation degree of earth's mineral resources.
	The resources may be physically assessed as its exergy content as
	well as the exergy required for replacing them from a complete degraded
	state to the conditions in which they are currently presented in
	nature. In this paper, an analysis of the state of our mineral resources
	has been accomplished. For that purpose an exergy accounting of 51
	minerals has been carried out throughout the 20th century. This has
	allowed estimating from geological data when the peak of production
	of the main mineral commodities could be reached. The obtained Hubbert's
	bell-shaped curves of the mineral and fossil fuels commodities can
	now be represented in an all-together exergy–time representation
	here named as the � exergy countdown�. This shows in a very schematic
	way the amount of exergy resources available in the planet and the
	possible exhaustion behaviour. Our results show that the peak of
	production of the most important minerals might be reached before
	the end of the 21st century. This confirms the Hubbert trend curves
	for minerals obtained by other authors using a different methodology.
	These figures may change, as new discoveries are made. However, assuming
	that these discoveries double, most of the peaks would only displace
	our concern around 30 years. This is due to our exponential demand
	growth. The exergy analysis of minerals could constitute a universal
	and transparent tool for the management of the earth's physical stock.},
  citeulike-article-id = {7010767},
  citeulike-linkout-0 =  {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2010.02.010},
  citeulike-linkout-1 =  {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0921344910000510},
  day =                  {03},
  file =                 {:C\:\\datos\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Valero2010e.pdf:PDF},
  issn =                 {09213449},
  owner =                {alvalero},
  posted-at =            {2010-08-04 11:52:40},
  timestamp =            {2010.09.20}

  author =               {Valero D., Alicia and Valero, Antonio and Mart\'{\i}nez, Amaya},
  title =                {Inventory of the exergy resources on earth including its mineral capital},
  journal =              {Energy},
  year =                 {2010},
  volume =               {35},
  pages =                {989-995},
  abstract =             {This paper makes an inventory of the natural capital on earth in terms
	of exergy, which includes not only renewable and non-renewable energy
	resources, but also non-fuel minerals. The exergy method is very
	suitable for the accounting of our natural capital because all kinds
	of resources can be assessed with a single property. For the case
	of minerals, exergy allows to unify properties tonnage and grade.
	Furthermore, the exergy replacement costs of minerals includes additional
	information of the state of technology. The aggregation capacity
	of the exergy and exergy replacement cost indicators increases the
	analysis potential of the results. This way, the non-fuel mineral's
	wealth can be compared to that of fuel minerals or even to other
	natural resources. The results of this study reveal that the real
	scarcity problems that humankind are facing are not based on the
	lack of energy sources, but on the lack of minerals.},
  citeulike-article-id = {5373171},
  citeulike-linkout-0 =  {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2009.06.036},
  citeulike-linkout-1 =  {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0360544209002473},
  day =                  {14},
  file =                 {:C\:\\datos\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Valero2010d.pdf:PDF},
  issn =                 {03605442},
  owner =                {alvalero},
  posted-at =            {2010-08-04 11:52:52},
  timestamp =            {2010.09.20}

  author =  {Antonio Valero and sergio Usón and César Torres and Alicia Valero},
  title =   {Application of Thermoeconomics to Industrial Ecology},
  journal = {Entropy},
  year =    {2010},
  volume =  {12},
  pages =   {591-612},
  file =    {Valero2010g.pdf:pdfs\\Valero2010g.pdf:PDF}

  author =    {Valero D., Alicia and Antonio Valero and Javier B. Gómez},
  title =     {The crepuscular planet. A model for the exhausted continental crust},
  journal =   {Energy},
  year =      {2011},
  volume =    {36},
  number =    {1},
  pages =     {694 - 707},
  abstract =  {We propose a model for an exhausted upper continental crust. The Crepuscular
	Earth represents a degraded planet where all resources have been
	extracted and dispersed, and all fossil fuels have been burned. The
	starting point of the model of crepuscular crust is the composition
	given by the geochemist Grigor'ev, which is constrained by the conservation
	of mass statement between the chemical composition of the crust in
	terms of elements and in terms of minerals. Additionally, the model
	is given geological consistence, by introducing a series of assumptions
	based on geological observations. As a result, the obtained crepuscular
	crust is composed of the 294 most abundant minerals. Together with
	the model of exhausted atmosphere and hydrosphere developed in a
	previous paper, the study will serve as a reference for calculating
	the exergy of the current mineral capital on Earth and its degradation
  doi =       {DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2010.09.034},
  issn =      {0360-5442},
  keywords =  {Exergy},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2011.01.12}

  author =    {Valero, A. and Valero D., Alicia},
  title =     {A prediction of the exergy loss of the world's mineral reserves in the 21st century},
  journal =   {Energy},
  year =      {2011},
  volume =    {36},
  pages =     {1848-1854},
  file =      {:C\:\\datos\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Valero2011b.pdf:PDF;:D\:\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Valero2010b.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2010.07.08}

  author =    {Antonio Valero and Valero D., Alicia and Cristobal Cortés},
  title =     {{Exergy of Comminution and the Crepuscular Planet}},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy Water and Environmental Systems},
  year =      {2011},
  address =   {Dubrovnik, Croatia},
  month =     {September, 25-29},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2012.01.31}

  author =    {Valero D., Alicia and Antonio Valero and Philippe Vieillard},
  title =     {The thermodynamic properties of the upper continental crust: Exergy, Gibbs free energy and enthalpy},
  journal =   {Energy},
  year =      {2012},
  volume =    {41},
  number =    {0},
  pages =     {121 - 127},
  file =      {:C\:\\datos\\Tesis\\Biblio\\pdfs\\Valero2012.pdf:PDF},
  issn =      {0360-5442},
  keywords =  {Exergy},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2012.04.20}

  author =    {Antonio Valero and Valero D., Alicia},
  title =     {{Exergy of comminution and the Thanatia Earth's model}},
  journal =   {Energy},
  year =      {2012},
  volume =    {44},
  pages =     {1085-1093},
  abstract =  {The exergy assessment of the mineral capital on Earth has been usually
	calculated as the minimum and actual exergy required for replacing
	the minerals in composition, concentration and quantity from a completely
	degraded state where all resources have been extracted and dispersed
	to the conditions found currently in Nature, i.e. from what we call
	Thanatia or the Crepuscular Planet to the mine conditions. In this
	evaluation, we have assumed that the concentration exergy is calculated
	as the minimum energy involved in concentrating a substance from
	an ideal mixture of two components, which is only strictly valid
	for ideal mixtures. When there is not chemical cohesion among the
	substances, it remains valid for solid mixtures. But the cohesion
	energy is always present in any mineral. Hence, the aim of this paper
	is twofold: 1) it explain show to calculate the comminution exergy
	for any mineral or rock as a function of the comminuted size, and
	2) what should be the reference level for the average size fragment
	in the Crepuscular Planet. The results of the study indicate that
	the comminution exergy term is very low compared to the concentration
	exergy and can be neglected when assessing the exergy of naturally
	comminuted minerals found in mines having Thanatia as reference.
	Nevertheless, as industry requires in most of cases very fine grain
	sizes, industrial comminution consumes very large amounts of exergy
	and cannot be neglected.},
  file =      {:pdfs\\Valero2012b.pdf:PDF},
  issn =      {0360-5442},
  keywords =  {Exergy of comminution},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2012.05.29}

  author =    {Valero D., Alicia and Antonio Valero},
  title =     {What are the clean reserves of fossil fuels?},
  journal =   {Resources, Conservation and Recycling},
  year =      {2012},
  volume =    {68},
  pages =     {126 - 131},
  abstract =  {The costs associated to the abatement of pollutants coming from the
	burning of fossil fuels are calculated through the thermodynamic
	property exergy. We define the clean ton of a fossil fuel as the
	difference between its maximum recoverable energy (or exergy) and
	its exergy abatement cost. This way, energy reserves can be expressed
	in terms of clean tons of oil equivalent, ctoe, instead of the conventional
	measure expressed as toe. Additionally, the energy content of fossil
	fuels is affected by the conditions of the environment. An increase
	in atmospheric CO2 emissions and temperature due to the greenhouse
	effect, will lead to a decrease in their available energy. Hence,
	the actual clean tons will take into account both issues, the decrease
	of exergy due to the utilization of clean technologies plus the climate
	change effect. In the paper we make an inventory of the clean exergy
	fossil fuel reserves. The results show that the exergy of proven
	reserves are decreased by about 11%, if these two factors are taken
	into account.},
  file =      {:C\:\\datos\\Tesis\\Biblio\\pdfs\\Valero2012c.pdf:PDF},
  issn =      {0921-3449},
  keywords =  {Fossil fuels},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2012.10.03}

  author =    {Antonio Valero and Valero D., Alicia},
  title =     {{Assessing the Exergy Mineral Capital on Earth: A proposal to the United Nations System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (UNSC-SEEA)}},
  booktitle = {3th International Conference on Contemporary Problems of Thermal Engineering (CPOTE)},
  year =      {2012},
  address =   {Gliwice, Poland},
  month =     {September 18-20},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2013.06.05}

  author =    {Valero, A. and Valero D., A.},
  title =     {{Assessing the exergy of the miineral capital on Earth: a proposal to the United Nations System of Environmental-Economic Accounting }},
  booktitle = {Inproceedings of CPOTE 2012},
  year =      {2012},
  address =   {Gliwice, Poland},
  month =     {17.20 September},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2014.08.22}

  author =    {Valero D., Alicia and Antonio Valero and Adriana Domínguez},
  title =     {{Exergy Replacement Cost of Mineral Resources}},
  journal =   {Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management},
  year =      {2013},
  volume =    {1},
  number =    {1},
  pages =     {147-158},
  file =      {:pdfs\\Valero2013a.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2013.06.05}

  author =    {Valero, Antonio and Uson, Sergio and Torres, Cesar and Valero, Alicia and Agudelo, Andres and Costa, Jorge},
  title =     {Thermoeconomic tools for the analysis of eco-industrial parks},
  journal =   {Energy},
  year =      {2013},
  volume =    {62},
  number =    {0},
  pages =     {62--72},
  month =     dec,
  abstract =  {Abstract Thermoeconomics can play a key role in the analysis of eco-industrial
	parks because it provides a systemic approach and, by using exergy,
	expresses matter and energy flows in the same physical units. Besides
	methodologies developed for thermal systems analysis, diagnosis and
	optimization, application of thermoeconomics to industrial symbiosis
	requires the development of new methods such as those presented here.
	First, two decomposition strategies for exergy costs are proposed
	(according to: (i) irreversibility and (ii) origin of resources).
	Then, a fuel impact approach for locating and quantifying the origin
	of resources savings due to integration is presented.},
  issn =      {0360-5442},
  keywords =  {Thermoeconomic analysis, Exergy, Wastes, Industrial symbiosis},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2015.07.14},
  url =       {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544213006014}

  author =       {Valero D., Alicia and Valero, A. and Dominguez, A.},
  title =        {Exergy Cost Allocation of by-products in the mining and metallurgical industry},
  booktitle =    {Proceedings of ECOS 2014},
  year =         {2014},
  address =      {Finland},
  month =        {June 15-19},
  organization = {27th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems},
  owner =        {alvalero},
  timestamp =    {2013.11.06}

  author =    {Antonio Valero and Óscar Carpintero and Valero D., Alicia and Guiomar Calvo},
  title =     {How to account for mineral depletion. The exergy and economic mineral balance of Spain as a case study},
  journal =   {Ecological Indicators},
  year =      {2014},
  volume =    {46},
  pages =     {548-559},
  file =      {:pdfs\\Valero2014.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2014.09.01}

  author =    {Alicia Valero and Antonio Valero and Guiomar Calvo},
  title =     {Using thermodynamics to improve the resource efficiency indicator GDP/DMC },
  journal =   {Resources, Conservation and Recycling },
  year =      {2015},
  volume =    {94},
  number =    {0},
  pages =     {110 - 117},
  abstract =  {Abstract This paper analyzes the drawbacks of using the lead indicator
	Gross Domestic Product divided by Domestic Material Consumption (GDP/DMC)
	proposed by the European Commission as part of the Resource Efficiency
	Roadmap. As an alternative, we propose to assess mineral resource
	efficiency through exergy replacement costs instead of using mass
	terms. Exergy replacement costs represent the useful energy that
	would be required to return minerals from the most dispersed state
	(the bedrock) to their original conditions (of composition and concentration
	in the mineral deposits). Dispersing a scarce mineral such as gold
	or oil has a much higher replacement cost than that of iron or limestone
	and in the final accounting, the first minerals have a greater weighting.
	Consequently, the tonnage produced and dispersion degree are considered
	in the proposed index. This new index would lead to more developed
	policies that could reduce the consumption of scarce materials with
	higher replacement costs. The suitability of the proposed indicator
	is evaluated through the case study of mineral balance in Spain.
  doi =       {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2014.12.001},
  file =      {Valero2015.pdf:pdfs\\Valero2015.pdf:PDF},
  issn =      {0921-3449},
  keywords =  {Domestic material consumption},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2015.03.06},
  url =       {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344914002638}

  author =    {Valero, Alicia and Dominguez, Adriana and Valero, Antonio},
  title =     {Exergy cost allocation of by-products in the mining and metallurgical industry},
  journal =   {Resources, Conservation and Recycling},
  year =      {2015},
  volume =    {102},
  pages =     {128--142},
  month =     sep,
  abstract =  {Abstract In the mining and metallurgical industry, with each ore,
	products, by-products and wastes appear. Allocations among products
	when one or more by-products come about in a mining or metallurgical
	process are based either on tonnage or on commercial prices. Both
	ways of allocating costs entails disadvantages that are analysed
	in this paper. Besides a rigorous way to allocate costs among non-fuel
	minerals through the exergy replacement costs is proposed. Particularly,
	33 different mineral deposit models where 12 coupled products are
	obtained have been analysed. Results show that the average difference
	between the economic approach and the exergy approach range from
	0% to 30%. The highest difference is presented in metals such as
	copper, nickel and cobalt. Therefore, as a case study, exergy cost
	allocation was applied to copper and nickel production with its respective
	by-product (cobalt). The results suggest that if exergy replacement
	cost is applied, cost allocation values are similar to those obtained
	via the price indicator. This supports the idea that the exergy replacement
	cost is very close to the value society places on minerals. That
	said, contrarily to prices, exergy replacement cost does not fluctuate
	with external factors linked to market mechanisms but remains constant.},
  file =      {:pdfs\\Valero2015c.pdf:PDF},
  issn =      {0921-3449},
  keywords =  {Mining, Metallurgy, LCA, Mineral resources, Cost allocation, Exergy replacement cost},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2015.08.31},
  url =       {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344915001159}

  author =   {Van Eygen, Emile and De Meester, Steven and Tran, Ha Phuong and Dewulf, Jo},
  title =    {Resource savings by urban mining: The case of desktop and laptop computers in Belgium},
  journal =  {Resources, Conservation and Recycling},
  year =     {2016},
  volume =   {107},
  pages =    {53--64},
  month =    feb,
  abstract = {Abstract Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become increasingly important over the last years. Additionally, the European Union recognizes the growing importance of raw materials, and the crucial role of recycling. In this study the performance of WEEE recycling was assessed for the case of desktop and laptop computers in Belgium in 2013. The analysis was performed in four steps. First, the recycling chain is analyzed through material flow analysis (MFA) at the level of specific materials. Second, an indicator is calculated, which quantifies the effectively recycled weight ratios of the specific materials. Third, a second indicator expresses the recycling efficiency of so-called critical raw materials. Finally, the natural resource consumption of the recycling scheme in a life cycle perspective is calculated using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) method, and is benchmarked with a landfill scenario. Overall, the results show that base metals such as ferrous metals, aluminium and copper are recycled to a large extent, but that for precious metals improvements still can be made. The input of criticality (arising from the incoming mass, as well as the individual criticality value of the assessed material) mainly comes from base metals, resulting in a high recovery performance of raw materials criticality. Finally, the natural resource consumption of the recycling scenario is much smaller than in case of landfilling the WEEE: 80 and 87% less resource consumption is achieved for desktops and laptops respectively, hence saving significant primary raw materials.},
  file =     {VanEygen2016.pdf:pdfs\\VanEygen2016.pdf:PDF},
  issn =     {0921-3449},
  keywords = {WEEE, Recycling, Raw material criticality, MFA, LCA},
  url =      {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344915301269}

  author =    {Geert Van der Vorst and Herman Van Langenhove and Frederik De Paep and Wim Aelterman and Jules Dingenen and Jo Dewulf},
  title =     {Exergetic life cycle analysis for the selection of chromatographic separation processes in the pharmaceutical industry: preparative HPLC versus preparative SFC},
  journal =   {Green Chem.},
  year =      {2009},
  pages =     {1-6},
  abstract =  {Today, environmentally responsible chemistry is of huge importance
	in the wake of sustainable
	production. In the field of the fine chemical and pharmaceutical industry,
	preparative supercritical
	fluid chromatography (Prep-SFC) and preparative high performance liquid
	(Prep-HPLC) are widely used chiral separation techniques. Prep-SFC
	is often named as a green
	alternative for Prep-HPLC without having a thorough assessment of
	the greenness. However, if
	metrics are used for process selection with respect to green chemistry,
	they mainly show three
	shortcomings: (1) a narrow system boundary approach is used; (2) energy
	requirements are barely
	taken into account and (3) if energy requirements are considered,
	there is a differentiation in mass
	and energy inputs. Taking into account these shortcomings, Prep-HPLC
	and Prep-SFC are now
	compared and evaluated for their integral resource consumption. The
	evaluation is performed on
	a specific enantiomeric separation using exergetic life cycle analysis
	within enlarging system
	boundaries a, b and g. Within the a system boundary (process level),
	Prep-HPLC requires 26.3%
	more resources quantified in exergy than the Prep-SFC separation due
	to its inherent higher use of
	organic solvents. Within the b system boundary (plant level), Prep-HPLC
	requires 29.1% more
	resources quantified in exergy than Prep-SFC. However, the Cumulative
	Exergy Extracted from
	the Natural Environment (CEENE) to deliver all mass and energy flows
	to the a and b system
	boundary via the overall industrial metabolism shows that Prep-SFC
	requires 34.3% more
	resources than Prep-HPLC. The poor score of Prep-SFC in the g system
	boundary is attributed to
	the high CEENE value related to the production of liquid carbon dioxide
	and the use of electricity
	for heating and cooling. It can be concluded that for this case, the
	most sustainable process as for
	the integral resource consumption is Prep-HPLC, unlike the general
	perception that Prep-SFC
	outperforms Prep-HPLC.},
  file =      {:D\:\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Vorst2009.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2009.05.11}

  author =  {Wall, G.},
  title =   {National Exergy Accounting of Natural Resources},
  journal = {Eolss Publishers},
  year =    {2003},
  note =    {Retrieved May 19, 2005},
  file =    {Wall_eolss_nat_res.pdf:\\\\Morko\\Costurbis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Wall_eolss_nat_res.pdf:PDF},
  owner =   {alvalero},
  url =     {http://www.eolss.net}

  author =      {Wall, G.},
  title =       {Exergy - a Useful Concept within Resource Accounting},
  institution = { Institute of Theoretical Physics, Göteborg},
  year =        {1977},
  type =        {report},
  number =      {77-42},
  file =        {Wall1977.pdf:\\\\Morko\\Costurbis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Wall1977.pdf:PDF},
  owner =       {alvalero}

  author =  {Wall, G. and Gong, M.},
  title =   {On exergy and sustainable development-Part 1: Conditions and concepts},
  journal = {Exergy Int. J.},
  year =    {2001},
  volume =  {1},
  number =  {3},
  pages =   {128-145},
  file =    {wallexergy.pdf:\\\\Morko\\Costurbis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\wallexergy.pdf:PDF},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  author =    {Göran Wall},
  title =     {Exergy capital and sustainable development},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Second International Exergy, Energy and Environment Symposium},
  year =      {2005},
  number =    {XII-149},
  address =   {Kos, Greece},
  month =     {3-7 July 2005},
  file =      {:D\:\\Tesis\\Bibliografia exergoecologia\\pdfs\\Wall2005a.pdf:PDF},
  owner =     {alvalero},
  timestamp = {2010.06.01}

  author =  {Zaleta, A. and Ranz, L. and Valero, A.},
  title =   {Towards a unified measure of renewable resources availability: the exergy method applied to the water of a river},
  journal = {Energy Conversion and Management},
  year =    {1998},
  volume =  {39},
  number =  {16-18},
  pages =   {1911-1917},
  owner =   {alvalero}

  author =    {N. Zhang and N. Lior},
  title =     {Proposal and analysis of a novel zero CO2 emission cycle with LNG cryogenic exergy utilization},
  journal =   {ASME J. Energy Resources Technology},
  year =      {2006},
  volume =    {128},
  pages =     {81-91},
  owner =     {usuario},
  timestamp = {2013.04.19}

  author =    {N. Zhang and N. Lior},
  title =     {A novel near-zero emission thermal cycle with LNG cryogenic exergy utilization},
  journal =   {Energy},
  year =      {2006},
  volume =    {31},
  pages =     {1666-1679},
  owner =     {usuario},
  timestamp = {2013.04.19}

  author =    {N. Zhang and N. Lior},
  title =     {A novel Brayton cycle with the integration of liquid hydrogen cryogenic exergy utilization},
  journal =   {International Journal of Hydrogen Energy},
  year =      {2008},
  volume =    {33, 1},
  pages =     {214-224},
  owner =     {usuario},
  timestamp = {2013.04.19}

  author =    {N. Zhang and N. Lior and C. Luo},
  title =     {Use of Low/Mid-Temperature Solar Heat for Thermochemical Upgrading of Energy, Part II: A Novel Zero-Emissions Design (ZE-SOLRGT) of the Solar Chemically-Recuperated Gas-Turbine Power Generation System (SOLRGT) guided by its Exergy Analysis.},
  journal =   {ASME J. of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power},
  year =      {2012},
  volume =    {134, 7},
  pages =     {072302 1-8},
  owner =     {usuario},
  timestamp = {2013.04.22}

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Ulysea S.L. - Informática

The Material Limits of Energy Transition: Thanatia

Antonio Valero Capilla, Alicia Valero Delgado and Guiomar Calvo

This book provides a holistic view of raw mineral depletion in the context of renewable energy transistion.

The material limits Thanatia


Thanatia. Los límites minerales del planeta

mites minerales del planeta

 Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado interviewed by Adrián Almazán

We need a material transition, not only energetic, that restores nature and effectively reuses materials. Gaia must be cared for by extending life on Earth and slowing its degradation towards Thanatia.

Thanatia los limites


Thermodynamics for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Cover Thermodynamics

Wojciech Stanek (Editor)

This book examines ways of assessing the rational management of nonrenewable resources. Integrating numerous methods, it systematically exposes the strengths of exergy analysis in resources management.

Thanatia: The Destiny of the Earth's Mineral Resources

Cover Thanatia

A Thermodynamic Cradle-to-Cradle Assessment by (author): Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado

Is Gaia becoming Thanatia, a resource exhausted planet? For how long can our high-tech society be sustained in the light of declining mineral ore grades, heavy dependence on un-recycled critical metals and accelerated material dispersion? These are all root causes of future disruptions that need to be addressed today.