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@Article{Kameyama1982,
  author = {H Kameyama and K Yoshida and S Yamauchi and K Fueki},
  title = {Evaluation of Reference Exergy for the elements},
  year = {1982},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Applied Energy},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {69-83}
}

@Article{Szargut1989,
  author = {J Szargut},
  title = {Chemical Exergies of the Elements},
  year = {1989},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Applied Energy},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {269-286}
}

@Article{Szargut2002,
  author = {J Szargut and A Ziebik and W Stanek},
  title = {Depletion of the non-renewable natural exergy resources as a measure of the ecological cost},
  year = {2002},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy Conversion and Management},
  number = {43},
  pages = {1149-1163}
}

@Misc{eParliament,
  author = { eParliament},
  title = {Climate, Energy, Forests. Creating a virtual parliament of legislators to protect our planet},
  year = {2003-2006},
  abstract = {},
  howpublished = {http://www.e-parl.net/eparliament/upload/Why\\_an\\_e-Parliament.pdf}
}

@Techreport{Abare2006,
  author = { Abare},
  title = {Energy update 2006},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {The Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics},
  note = {Online under: http://www.abareconomics.com/publications\\_html/ energy/energy\\_06/
	energyupdate \\_06.pdf}
}

@Book{Abbott1989,
  author = {M M Abbott and H CVan Ness},
  title = {Theory and Problems of Thermodynamics},
  year = {1989},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {McGraw-Hill}
}

@Techreport{Ahrendts1977,
  author = {J Ahrendts},
  title = {The exergy of chemically reacting systems},
  year = {1977},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {VDI Forschungsheft 579},
  address = {Düsseldorf},
  note = {In German}
}

@Article{Ahrens1954,
  author = {L H Ahrens},
  title = {The log-normal distribution of the elements},
  year = {1954},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {49-73}
}

@Article{Alchian1963,
  author = {A A Alchian},
  title = {Reliability of Progress Curves in Airframe Production},
  year = {1963},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Econometrica},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {679-693}
}

@Article{Allegre1995,
  author = {C J Allègre and J-P Poirier and E Humler and A W Hofmann},
  title = {The chemical composition of the Earth},
  year = {1995},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
  volume = {134},
  pages = {515-526}
}

@Article{Allgre1983,
  author = {C J Allègre and S R Hart and J -F Minster},
  title = {Chemical structure and evolution of the mantle and continents determined by inversion of Nd and Sr isotopic data: II. Numerical experiments and discussion},
  year = {1983},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.},
  volume = {66},
  pages = {191-213}
}

@Article{Allegre1988,
  author = {C J Allègre and E Lewin and B Dupré},
  title = {A coherent crustal mantle model for the uranium-thorium-lead isotopic system},
  year = {1988},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Chem. Geol.},
  volume = {70},
  pages = {211-234}
}

@Article{Allegre2001,
  author = {C J Allègre and G Manhès and E Lewin},
  title = {Chemical composition of the Earth and the volatility control on planetary genetics},
  year = {2001},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
  volume = {185},
  pages = {46-69}
}

@Inbook{Andersen1970,
  author = {Neil R Andersen},
  title = {The Science of the sea},
  year = {1970},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {C. P. Idyll},
  publisher = {Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd},
  chapter = {Chemistry of the Sea},
  pages = {98-129}
}

@Article{Anderson1977,
  author = {R Anderson},
  title = {Resource conservation and pricing},
  year = {1977},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Resources Policy},
  pages = {78-95}
}

@Article{Archer2005,
  author = {C L Archer and M Z Jacobson},
  title = {Evaluation of global wind power},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres},
  volume = {110},
  number = {D12, D12110}
}

@Techreport{Aringhoff2003,
  author = {R Aringhoff and C Aubrey and G Brakmann and S Teske},
  title = {Solar thermal power 2020},
  year = {2003},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {Greenpeace International/European Solar Thermal Power Industry Association},
  address = {Netherlands}
}

@Book{Ashrae2005,
  author = { Ashrae},
  title = {Ashrae Handbook. Fundamentals},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Ashrae}
}

@Misc{ASTM,
  author = { ASTM},
  title = {Classification of Coal by Rank, ASTM D 338-92a,},
  year = {1992},
  abstract = {},
  howpublished = {American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, P.A., U.S.A..}
}

@Book{AusIMM1993,
  author = { AusIMM},
  title = {History of coal mining in Australia},
  year = {1993},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy},
  number = {No. 21}
}

@Article{Aydin2000,
  author = {Hamit Aydin and John E Tilton},
  title = {Mineral endowment, labor productivity, and comparative advantage in mining},
  year = {2000},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Resource and Energy Economics},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {281-293}
}

@Article{Ayres1998,
  author = {R U Ayres},
  title = {The price-value paradox},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Ecological Economics},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {17-19}
}

@Article{Ayres1988,
  author = {R U Ayres},
  title = {Optimal Investment Policies with Exhaustible Resources: An Information Based Model},
  year = {1988},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Journal of Environmental Economics and Management},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {439-461}
}

@Book{Ayres1996,
  author = {R Ayres and L Ayres},
  title = {Industrial Ecology. Towards closing the material cycle},
  year = {1996},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Edward Elgar Publishing},
  address = {Cheltenham U.K. and Northampton}
}

@Inbook{Ayres2006,
  author = {R U Ayres and L W Ayres and A Masini},
  title = {Sustainable Metals Management},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Springer},
  chapter = {An application of exergy accounting to five basic metal industries},
  pages = {141-194}
}

@Article{Ayres2003,
  author = {R U Ayres and L W Ayres and B Warr},
  title = {Exergy, power and work in the US economy, 1900 to1998},
  year = {2003},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {219-273}
}

@Article{Ayres1980,
  author = {R U Ayres and S M Miller},
  title = {The Role of Technical Change},
  year = {1980},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Journal of Environmental Economics and Management},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {353-371}
}

@Article{Ayres1984,
  author = {R U Ayres and I Nair},
  title = {Thermodynamics and Economics},
  year = {1984},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Physics Today},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {62-71}
}

@Book{Ayres,
  author = {Robert U Ayres and Leslie W Ayres},
  title = {Industrial Ecology: Towards Closing the Materials Cycle},
  year = {1996},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Edward Elgar Publishing}
}

@Article{Bardi2005,
  author = {U Bardi},
  title = {The mineral economy: a model for the shape of oil production curves},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy Policy},
  volume = {33},
  number = {1},
  pages = {53-61}
}

@Book{Barin1993,
  author = {I Barin},
  title = {Thermochemical Data of Pure Substances},
  year = {1993},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {VCH Verlagsgesellschaft GmbH},
  address = {Weinheim, Germany}
}

@Book{Barnett1963,
  author = {H Barnett and C Morse},
  title = {Scarcity and Growth},
  year = {1963},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {John Hopkins},
  address = {Baltimore}
}

@Misc{Barthelmy2007,
  author = {David Barthelmy},
  title = {Mineralogy Database, Webmineral},
  year = {2007},
  abstract = {},
  howpublished = {Online under http://www.webmineral.com}
}

@Article{Bartlett2000,
  author = {A A Bartlett},
  title = {An Analysis of U.S. and World Oil Production Patterns Using Hubbert-Style Curves},
  year = {2000},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Mathematical Geology},
  volume = {32},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1-17}
}

@Article{Bastianoni2005,
  author = {S Bastianoni and S N Nielsen and N Marchettini and S E Jorgensen},
  title = {Use of thermodynamic functions for expressing some relevant aspects of sustainability.},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {International Journal of Energy Research},
  volume = {29},
  number = {1},
  pages = {53-64}
}

@Article{Bastrakov2005,
  author = {E Bastrakov and Y Shvarov and S Girvan and J Cleverley and D McPhail and L AI Wyborn},
  title = {FreeGs: a web-enabled thermodynamic database for geochemical modelling},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: Goldschmidt conference abstracts
	2005},
  volume = {69},
  pages = {A845}
}

@Book{BatelleColumbusLaboratories1975,
  author = { Batelle-Columbus-Laboratories},
  title = {Energy use patterns in metallurgical and non-metallurgical mineral processing},
  year = {1975},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {U.S. Department of Commerce},
  address = {Washington}
}

@Book{Bateman1982,
  author = {Alan M Bateman},
  title = {Yacimientos minerales de rendimiento económico},
  year = {1982},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Ediciones Omega, S.A.},
  edition = {6th}
}

@Article{Baturin2000,
  author = {G N Baturin},
  title = {Mineral Resources of the Ocean},
  year = {2000},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Lithology and Mineral Resources},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {399-424}
}

@Book{Beichner2000,
  author = {R J Beichner and J W Jewett and R A Serway},
  title = {Physics For Scientists and Engineers},
  year = {2000},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Saunders College},
  address = {New York}
}

@Article{Bentley2002,
  author = {R Bentley},
  title = {Global oil \& Gas Depletion},
  year = {2002},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy Policy},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {189-205}
}

@Unpublished{Berman1992,
  author = {R G Berman},
  title = {Thermodynamic databases used by various versions of TWQ},
  year = {1992},
  abstract = {},
  note = {Unpublished documentation accompanying the TWQ software package}
}

@Article{Berner2003,
  author = {R A Berner},
  title = {The long-term carbon cycle, fossil fuels and atmospheric composition},
  year = {2003},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Nature},
  volume = {426},
  number = {6964},
  pages = {323-236}
}

@Article{Berzina2005,
  author = {A N Berzina and V I Sotnikov and M Economou-Eliopoulos and D G Eliopoulos},
  title = {Distribution of rhenium in molybdenite from porphyry Cu-Mo and Mo-Cu deposits of Russia (Siberia) and Mongolia},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Ore Geology Reviews},
  volume = {26},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {91-113}
}

@Book{BGS2002,
  author = { BGS},
  title = {World Mineral Production},
  year = {Various years (2002 - 2006)},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {British Geological Survey}
}

@Book{BGS1982,
  author = { BGS},
  title = {World Mineral Statistics},
  year = {Various years (1982 - 2002)},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {British Geological Survey}
}

@Booklet{BGS2006,
  author = { BGS},
  title = {Minerals - What makes a mine?},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  howpublished = {Online under: http://www.mineralsuk.com/britmin/mm5.pdf}
}

@Techreport{BGS,
  author = { BGS},
  title = {World Mineral Production 2001-2005},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {BGS}
}

@Article{Borodin1999,
  author = {L S Borodin},
  title = {Estimated chemical composition and petrochemical evolution of the upper continental crust},
  year = {1999},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Geochem. Int.},
  volume = {37},
  pages = {723-734}
}

@Article{Bosjankovic1963,
  author = {F Bosjankovic},
  title = {Reference Level of Exergy of Chemically Reacting Systems},
  year = {1963},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Forschung im Ingenieurwesen},
  volume = {21},
  pages = {151-152}
}

@Phdthesis{Botero2000,
  author = {E Botero},
  title = {Valoración exergética de recursos naturales, minerales, agua y combustibles fósiles},
  year = {2000},
  abstract = {},
  school = {Universidad de Zaragoza}
}

@Techreport{Bp2007,
  author = { BP},
  title = {Statistical review of world energy},
  year = {2007},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {British Petroleum},
  note = {Online under: http://www.bp.com/ productlanding.do ?categoryId=6848\&contentId=7033471}
}

@Techreport{BP1989,
  author = { BP},
  title = {B.P.Statistical Review of World Energy},
  year = {1989},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {The British Petroleum Company}
}

@Book{Brasseur1999,
  author = {G P Brasseur and J J Orlando and G S Tyndall},
  title = {Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change},
  year = {1999},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  address = {Oxford}
}

@Techreport{Bravard1972,
  author = {J C Bravard and H B Flora and C Portal},
  title = {Energy expeditures associated with the production and recycle of metals},
  year = {1972},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {Oak Ridge National Laboratory},
  type = {Report ORNL-NSF EP 24},
  address = {Oak Ridge, Tenn.}
}

@Book{Bray1962,
  author = {J L Bray},
  title = {Metalurgia Extractiva de los Metales no Ferreos},
  year = {1962},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Interciencia},
  address = {Madrid}
}

@Book{Bray1992,
  author = {M J Bray and D J Carter and J M Hooke},
  title = {Sea-Level Rise and Global Warming: Scenarios, Physical Impacts and Policies},
  year = {1992},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {University of Portsmouth}
}

@Inbook{Brewer1975,
  author = {P G Brewer},
  title = {Chemical Oceanography},
  year = {1975},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {J. P. Riley and G. Skirrow},
  publisher = {Academic Press},
  chapter = {Minor elements in sea water},
  pages = {415-496}
}

@Article{Brik1989,
  author = {K A Brik and B B Mureni and L O Kiseleva and L HMasinkovaandGA Kvasov},
  title = {Gold distribution according to its structure and volume fraction in the sands of gold deposits},
  year = {1989},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Mineral balance of chemical elements in rocks and deposits of the
	Urals},
  pages = {29-36},
  note = {In Russian}
}

@Article{Brodianskieolss,
  author = {V Brodianski},
  title = {Earth's available energy and the sustainable development of life support systems},
  year = {Retrieved May 19, 2005},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Theories and Practices for Energy Education, Training, Regulation
	and Standards, from Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS),
	Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO. Eolss Publishers, Oxford,
	UK; Online encyclopedia: http://www.eolss.net}
}

@Article{Broecker1991,
  author = {W S Broecker},
  title = {The great ocean conveyor},
  year = {1991},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Oceanography},
  volume = {4},
  number = {2},
  pages = {79-89}
}

@Book{Brookins1988,
  author = {D G Brookins},
  title = {Eh-pH Diagrams for Geochemistry},
  year = {1988},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  address = {Berlin}
}

@Article{Brooks1974,
  author = {D B Brooks and P W Andrews},
  title = {Mineral resources, economic growth and world population},
  year = {1974},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Science},
  pages = {13-20}
}

@Article{Brown1996,
  author = {M T Brown and R A Herendeen},
  title = {Embodied energy analysis and EMERGY analysis: a comparative view},
  year = {1996},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Ecological Economics},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {219-235}
}

@Article{Brown1966,
  author = {R W Brown},
  title = {Energy distribution in pulverizing},
  year = {1966},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Transactions - Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. Section C. Mineral
	processing \& extractive metallurgy},
  volume = {C75},
  pages = {73-80}
}

@Book{Brown2002,
  author = {S Brown},
  title = {World Energy Resource},
  year = {2002},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Springer}
}

@Book{Caille2007,
  author = {André Caille and  others},
  title = {Deciding the Future: Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050},
  year = {2007},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {World Energy Council},
  address = {London, UK},
  note = {Online under: http://www.worldenergy.org/documents/scenarios\\_study\\_online\\_1.pdf}
}

@Book{Campbell2003,
  author = {C J Campbell},
  title = {The Essence of Oil \& Gas Depletion},
  year = {2003},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Multiscience Publishing, Brentwood}
}

@Article{Campbell1997,
  author = {C J Campbell},
  title = {Better understanding urged for rapidly depleting reserves},
  year = {1997},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Oil and Gas Journal},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {51-54}
}

@Article{Campbell1998,
  author = {C J Campbell and J H Laherrère},
  title = {The end of cheap oil},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Scientific American},
  pages = {60-65}
}

@Article{Cargill1980,
  author = {S M Cargill and D H Root and E H Bailey},
  title = {Resource estimation from historical data: mercury, a test case},
  year = {1980},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Internat. Assoc. Math. Geologists Jour.},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {489-522}
}

@Book{Carmichael1990,
  author = {R S Carmichael},
  title = {Practical handbook of Physical Properties of Rocks and Minerals},
  year = {1990},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {CRC Press},
  address = {Boca Raton, Florida}
}

@Book{Carpintero2005,
  author = {Oscar Carpintero},
  title = {El metabolismo de la economía española. Recursos naturales y la huella ecológica (1955-2000)},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Economía vs Naturaleza},
  address = {Madrid},
  note = {In Spanish}
}

@Book{BGS1948,
  author = { CGS},
  title = {Statistical Summary},
  year = {Various years (1948-1955)},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Colonial Geological Surveys}
}

@Book{Chapman1983,
  author = {P F Chapman and F Roberts},
  title = {Metal Resources and Energy},
  year = {1983},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Butterworths}
}

@Inbook{Charlier1993,
  author = {R H Charlier and J R Justus},
  title = {Elsevier Oceanographic Series},
  year = {1993},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  chapter = {Ocean Energies: Environmental, economic, and technological aspects
	of alternative power sources},
  pages = {pp. 534}
}

@Article{Chermak1989,
  author = {J A Chermak and D Rimstidt},
  title = {Estimating the thermodynamik properties ($\Delta G\_f^0$ and $\Delta H\_f^0$) of silicate minerals at 298 K from the sum of polyhedral contributions},
  year = {1989},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {American Mineralogist},
  volume = {74},
  pages = {1023-1031}
}

@Techreport{CIA2005,
  author = { CIA},
  title = {The World Factbook},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {Central Intellilgence Agency},
  note = {Online under: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/}
}

@Book{CiriacyWantrup1952,
  author = {S V Ciriacy-Wantrup},
  title = {Resource Conservation, Economics and Policies},
  year = {1952},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {University of California Press},
  address = {California}
}

@Article{Clarke1889,
  author = {F W Clarke},
  title = {The relative abundance of the chemical elements},
  year = {1889},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Phil. Soc. Washington Bull.},
  volume = {XI},
  pages = {131-142}
}

@Inbook{Cleveland2003,
  author = {C J Cleveland},
  title = {Biophysical Constraints to Economic Growth},
  year = {2003},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {D. Al Gobaisi},
  publisher = {Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems. (http://eolss.com)}
}

@Inbook{Cleveland2008,
  author = {C J Cleveland and R Kaufmann},
  title = {Encyclopedia of Earth},
  year = {2008},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {T. Lawrence},
  publisher = {Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science
	and the Environment},
  address = {Washington, D.C},
  chapter = {Fundamental principles of energy}
}

@Article{Cleveland1997,
  author = {C J Cleveland and M Ruth},
  title = {When, where, and by how much do biophysical limits constrain the economic process?},
  year = {1997},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Ecological Economics},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {203-223}
}

@Article{Cleveland2005,
  author = {Cutler J Cleveland},
  title = {Net energy from the extraction of oil and gas in the United States},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {769-782}
}

@Techreport{Cohen1977,
  author = {H E Cohen},
  title = {Mineral resources development and technology},
  year = {1977},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {Department of Mining and Mineral Technology, Imperial College of
	Science and Technology},
  address = {London}
}

@Book{Condie1993,
  author = {K C Condie},
  title = {Plate Tectonics and Crustal Evolution},
  year = {1993},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Pergamon},
  address = {London}
}

@Article{Condie1993a,
  author = {Kent C Condie},
  title = {Chemical composition and evolution of the upper continental crust: contrasting results from surface samples and shales},
  year = {1993},
  abstract = {The average chemical composition of juvenile upper continental crust
	(UC) as a function of age is estimated from chemical analyses, geologic
	maps, stratigraphic sections and isotopic ages. High plutonic/supracrustal
	ratios in Archean UC may reflect in part a different mode of crustal
	formation prior to 2.5 Ga. Greenstones show an increase in felsic
	volcanics and graywackes in post-Archean successions, a drop almost
	to zero in the proportion of komatiites at the Archean-Proterozoic
	(A/P) boundary, and an increase in the proportion of andesites in
	the Phanerozoic. Compared to the Early Archean, Late and post-Archean
	UC are depleted in Mg, Cr, Ni and Co, and post-Archean UC is enriched
	in LILE (large-ion lithophile elements; K, Rb, Ba, Th, U), HFSE (high
	field strength elements; Ti, P, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Y), and HREE (heavy
	rare-earth elements). Negative Eu anomalies characterize UC of all
	ages, although they are relatively small in Archean UC. Cratonic
	shales show the same secular compositional changes as UC with the
	following important exceptions: At the A/P boundary, only shales
	show a decrease in Fe, V and Sc and an increase in Na, Ca and Sr,
	and only UC shows a significant increase in HREE and Y. Although
	post-Archean UC has a larger Eu anomaly than Archean UC, it is clear
	that both Archean UC and Archean shales have negative Eu anomalies,
	and that shales give only a weak indication of an increasing Eu anomaly
	in UC formed after the Archean. In both UC and shales at the A/P
	boundary, Cr/Th, Ni/Co and Co/Th ratios decrease, whereas the Th/U
	ratio increases only in shales and not in UC. The lack of HREE depletion
	and the high Fe, V and Sc contents of Archean shales indicate these
	shales were not derived from sources similar in composition to exposed
	Archean UC. The shale sources, which are now removed by erosion,
	must have been composed largely of basalt (± komatiite) (60
	granite (40
	which now dominates in Archean exposures. This suggests strong vertical
	zonation in the Archean continents with granites intruded into greenstones
	at very shallow levels. Compositional changes in UC or/and shales
	at the A/P boundary can be explained in one of the four ways: (1)
	a greater amount of basalt and komatiite in Archean UC (high Cr and
	Ni in Archean UC and shales); (2) garnet/amphibole fractionation
	during production of TTG by partial melting of hydrous basaltic crust
	(low HREE and Y in Archean UC); (3) change in TTG magma source from
	descending slab or thickened crust to metasomatized mantle wedge
	(increase in LILE and LREE in post-Archean UC and shales); and (4)
	a decrease in the intensity of chemical weathering after the Archean
	(increase in Na, Ca and Sr in post-Archean shales).},
  journal = {Chemical Geology},
  volume = {104},
  pages = {1-37}
}

@Article{Connelly2001,
  author = {L Connelly and C P Coshland},
  title = {Exergy and industrial ecology. Part 2: A non-dimensional analysis of means to reduce resource depletion},
  year = {2001},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Exergy Int. J.},
  volume = {1},
  number = {4},
  pages = {234-255}
}

@Article{Connelly2001a,
  author = {L Connelly and C P Coshland},
  title = {Exergy and industrial ecology—Part 1: An exergy-based de?nition of consumption and a thermodynamic interpretation of ecosystem evolution},
  year = {2001},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Exergy Int. J.},
  volume = {1},
  number = {3},
  pages = {146-165}
}

@Article{Contreras2009,
  author = {Ana M Contreras and Elena Rosa and Maylier PerezandHermanVan Langenhove and Jo Dewulf},
  title = {Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of four alternatives for using by-products of cane sugar production},
  year = {2009},
  abstract = {Cane sugar production by-products can be considered either as waste,
	affecting the environment, or as
	
	a resource when an appropriate valorization technology is implemented.
	
	This study is made with the objective of identifying and quantifying
	the aspects which have the largest
	
	environmental impact of four alternatives for using by-products and
	wastes from the cane sugar process
	
	and suggest improvements in the systems.
	
	For this analysis a cane sugar mill was chosen in Cuba and four alternatives
	were designed for the byproduct
	
	valorization. The first alternative represents the conventional sugar
	production; its main characteristics
	
	are the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, the bagasse combustion
	and the usage of
	
	molasses and agricultural wastes as animal food. Other wastes constitute
	emissions to the environment.
	
	Alternatives II, III and IV incorporate more use of by-products and
	wastes. Alternative II considers the use
	
	of wastewater, filter cake and ashes for the substitution of synthetic
	fertilizers. In Alternative III, the filter
	
	cake and wastewater are used for biogas production and Alternative
	IV integrates alcohol and biogas
	
	production into the sugar production process.
	
	The assessment is done by means of Life Cycle Assessment, according
	to the ISO 14040 series by using the
	
	SimaPro 6.0 LCA software, Ecoinvent database and the Eco-indicator
	99 methodology. As a functional
	
	unit the daily sugar production of the mill was defined (216 t/d).
	The sugar was selected as main product
	
	and all the by-products were assumed to substitute other products
	on the market, avoided products.
	
	For the four alternatives, the agricultural stage shows the greatest
	impact due to land use, fuel and
	
	agrochemicals consumption. In the industrial stage, the electricity
	cogeneration with bagasse has the
	
	highest impact as to respiratory effects due to the emission of tiny
	particle material into the atmosphere.
	
	The major difference between the alternatives is found in the resource
	impact category. The advantage of
	
	producing alcohol, biogas, animal food and fertilizers from the by-products
	is made obvious through the
	
	comparative study for resource savings.},
  journal = {Journal of Cleaner Production 17},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {772-779}
}

@Article{Cordfunke1998,
  author = {E HP Cordfunke and A S Booij and R R Vanderlaan},
  title = {The thermochemical properties of $Y\_2Si\_2O\_7$ and $Dy\_2Si\_2O\_7$},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {J Chem Thermodyn},
  volume = {30},
  number = {2},
  pages = {199-205}
}

@Article{Cornelissen2002,
  author = {R L Cornelissen and G G Hirs},
  title = {The value of the exergetic life cycle assessment besides the LCA},
  year = {2002},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy Conversion and Management},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {1417-1424}
}

@Article{Costanza1998,
  author = {R Costanza},
  title = {The value of ecosystem services},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Ecological Economics},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {1-2}
}

@Article{Costanzaetal1998,
  author = {R Costanza and R d'Arge and R de Groot and S Farber and M Grasso and B Hannon and K Limburg and S Naeem and R VandParuelo,J O'Neill and R G Raskin and P Sutton and M van den Belt},
  title = {The value of ecosystem services: putting the issues in perspectives},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Ecological Economics},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {67-72}
}

@Article{Costanza1997,
  author = {Robert Costanza and Ralph d'Arge and Rudolf de Groot and Stephen Farber and Monica Grasso and Bruce Hannon and Karin Limburg and Shahid Naeem and Robert V O'Neill and Jose Paruelo and Robert GRaskinandPaul Sutton and Marjan vanden Belt},
  title = {The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital},
  year = {1997},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Nature},
  volume = {387},
  pages = {253 - 260}
}

@Article{Costanza1992,
  author = {R Costanza and H E Daly},
  title = {Natural Capital and Sustainable Development},
  year = {1992},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Conservation Biology},
  volume = {6},
  number = {1},
  pages = {37-46}
}

@Article{Craig1973,
  author = {J R Craig and P B Barton},
  title = {Thermochemical approximations for sulfosalts},
  year = {1973},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Economic Geology},
  volume = {68},
  pages = {493-506}
}

@Article{Craig1998,
  author = {J R Craig and J D Rimstidt},
  title = {Gold Production History of the United States},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {Gold has played an important role in the settlement and economics
	of the United States. Commercial production from 24 states totaled
	more than 420 million troy ounces13,000 metric tons.from 1804 through
	1995. There were, no doubt, early undocumented discoveries by Native
	Americans, but the first records are those from the mid-1600’s in
	the east and from the 1770’s in the west. Commercial production began
	in 1804 in North Carolina and spread among several Appalachian states
	in the 1820’s and 1830’s as placer deposits were discovered and exploited.
	After peaking in the 1830’s and 1840’s, Appalachian production began
	to decline as deposits were worked out and as miners moved westward
	in response to the news of the discoveries in California in 1848.
	Appalachian production virtually ceased with the Civil War while
	production from California and adjacent states remained at several
	millions of ounces per year. As the California Gold Rush waned, new
	discoveries brought the Rocky Mountain states, South Dakota, and
	Alaska into prominence. Local, state and total production responded
	to time of discovery, extent of placers, labor availability, technology,
	government mandates and, of course, the price of gold. By 1900, the
	major gold rushes had occurred and most of the major producing districts
	were defined; however, the fixed price of goldsince 1837.provided
	a decreasingly attractive incentive for more exploration and exploitation.
	The rise in the price of gold, during the Depression provided a powerful
	incentive to increase gold production, but one that was cut short
	by War Production Board Order L-208 which closed the gold mines in
	1942. In the post-war period, the fixed price, combined with the
	prohibition of American gold ownership, again proved to be a disincentive
	and gold production dropped. The era of free gold price that began
	in 1968, followed by the permission for Americans to again own gold,
	brought new interest in gold with prices rising briefly in 1980 to
	US$850 per ounce and remaining above US$350 per ounce through 1995.
	This higher price, combined with the technology for bulk mining and
	processing of low grade ores, provided incentive for new exploration
	and exploitation. Consequently, gold production soared above 10 million
	ounces per year in the early 1990’s with 65
	There has been a general decrease in the grade of gold ores since
	the early 1900’s and significant changes in the methods of recovery.
	Despite the decreasing grade, the reserves of recoverable gold have
	more than doubled since the early 1970’s.},
  journal = {Ore Geology Reviews},
  volume = {27},
  number = {1},
  pages = {9-24}
}

@Book{Craig2001,
  author = {J Craig and D Vaughan and B J Skinner},
  title = {Resources of the earth: origin, use and environmental impact},
  year = {2001},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Prentice Hall},
  edition = {3rd}
}

@Book{Crowson2006,
  author = {Phillip Crowson and Roderick Eggert and Pietro Guj and Frank HarmanandPeter Howie and Gavin Jahn and Philip Maxwell and Rick West},
  title = {Australian Mineral Economics},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy}
}

@Inbook{Culkin1965,
  author = {F Culkin},
  title = {Chemical Oceanography},
  year = {1965},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {J. P. Riley and G. Skirrow},
  publisher = {Academic Press},
  address = {London},
  chapter = {The major constituents of seawater},
  pages = {121-161}
}

@Article{Varajao2000,
  author = {César AC Varajao and Ouro Preto and Michel Fialin and Fabrice Colin and Philippe Vieillard},
  title = {Chemical composition including oxygen of an undefined Pd-Cu- bearing phase from Maquiné Mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil},
  year = {2000},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Zbl. Geolo. Paläont. Teil I},
  volume = {7/8},
  pages = {871-881}
}

@Article{Daly1998,
  author = {H E Daly},
  title = {The return of Lauderdale's paradox},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Ecological Economics},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {21-23}
}

@Book{Daly1989,
  author = {H E Daly and J B Cobb},
  title = {For the common good: redirecting the economy toward community, the environment, and a sustainable future},
  year = {1989},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Beacon Press},
  address = {Boston, Massachussets}
}

@Inbook{Darnley1987,
  author = {A G Darnley},
  title = {Resources and World Development},
  year = {1987},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {D. J. McLaren and B. J. Skinner},
  publisher = {John Wiley and Sons Limited},
  chapter = {Resources for Nuclear Energy},
  pages = {187-210}
}

@Book{Deffeyes2001,
  author = {K S Deffeyes},
  title = {The Impending World Oil Shortage},
  year = {2001},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Princeton University Press},
  address = {Princeton}
}

@Article{Deffeyes1980,
  author = {Kenneth S Deffeyes and Ian D MacGregor},
  title = {World Uranium Resources},
  year = {1980},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Scientific American},
  volume = {242},
  number = {1},
  pages = {50-60}
}

@Article{Dewulf2007,
  author = {J Dewulf and M E Bösch and B De Meester and G VanderVorstandHvan Langenhove and S Hellweg and M A Huijbregts},
  title = {Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE): a comprehensive Life Cycle Impact Assessment method for resource accounting},
  year = {2007},
  abstract = {resource-based life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method
	
	which is scientifically sound and that enables to assess all kinds
	
	of resources that are deprived from the natural ecosystem,
	
	all quantified on one single scale, free of weighting factors. The
	
	method is based on the exergy concept. Consistent exergy
	
	data on fossils, nuclear and metal ores, minerals, air, water, land
	
	occupation, and renewable energy sources were elaborated,
	
	with well defined system boundaries. Based on these data, the
	
	method quantifies the exergy “taken away” from natural
	
	ecosystems, and is thus called the cumulative exergy extraction
	
	from the natural environment (CEENE). The acquired data set
	
	was coupled with a state-of-the art life cycle inventory database,
	
	ecoinvent. In this way, the method is able to quantitatively
	
	distinguish eight categories of resources withdrawn from the
	
	natural environment: renewable resources, fossil fuels, nuclear
	
	energy, metal ores, minerals, water resources, land resources,
	
	and atmospheric resources. Third, the CEENE method is
	
	illustrated for a number of products that are available in
	
	ecoinvent, and results are compared with common resource
	
	oriented LCIA methods. The application to the materials in the
	
	ecoinvent database showed that fossil resources and land
	
	use are of particular importance with regard to the total CEENE
	
	score, although the other resource categories may also be
	
	significant.},
  journal = {Environ. Sci. Technol. 2007},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {8477–8483}
}

@Article{Dewulf2002a,
  author = {Jo Dewulf and H van Langenhove},
  title = {Quantitative Assessment of Solid Waste Treatment Systems in the Industrial Ecology Perspective by Exergy Analysis},
  year = {2002},
  abstract = {Solid waste treatment options (recycling, incineration, and
	
	landfilling; the two latter processes both with cogeneration
	
	of heat and electricity) have been studied for
	
	cardboard, newspaper, polyethylene, poly(ethylene
	
	terephthalate), polypropylene, polystyrene, and poly(vinyl
	
	chloride) waste. The conversion processes have been
	
	analyzed in terms of the second law of thermodynamics.
	
	The analysis allows calculating the exergy (useful energy)
	
	embodied in conversion products that can be obtained
	
	from the required inputs for the treatment processes. Taking
	
	into account the waste materials and the resources to
	
	convert them, it proved that recycling is the most efficient
	
	option for polyethylene with an efficiency of 62.5
	
	versus 43.6
	
	Next, waste treatment has been put into the broader
	
	perspective of industrial ecology. Exergetic efficiencies of
	
	industrial metabolic options have been calculated. Here
	
	resources for manufacturing and converting solid products
	
	have been considered. Furthermore, selection of one
	
	type of conversion excludes the generation of other potential
	
	conversion products. Therefore, it has to be taken into
	
	account that these latter products still have to be produced
	
	starting from virgin resources. Recycling proved to be
	
	the most efficient strategy: the ratio è between exergy
	
	embodied in all delivered products on one hand, and all
	
	exergy withdrawn from the ecosphere or from waste materials
	
	on the other hand, is the highest. For polyethylene, è
	
	proved to be 0.568, whereas è is 0.503 and 0.329 for incineration
	
	and landfilling, respectively. On the other hand, if R the
	
	ratio between exergy of delivered products on one hand
	
	and exergy of virgin materials on the other hand is calculated,
	
	the differences between the industrial metabolic options
	
	are larger. Recycling polyethylene showed a ratio R of 0.936,
	
	whereas ratios of 0.772 and 0.531 were found for
	
	incineration and landfilling, respectively. It has been
	
	shown that the exergy concept allows a quantitative
	
	comparison of different industrial metabolic options,
	
	contributing to a better assessment of sustainability of
	
	technology with respect to resource management.},
  journal = {Environ. Sci. Technol.},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {1130-1135}
}

@Article{Dewulf2008,
  author = {J Dewulf and H van Langenhove and B Muys and S Bruers and B R Bakshi and G F Grubb and D M Paulus and E Sciubba},
  title = {Exergy: Its Potential and Limitations in Environmental Science and Technology},
  year = {2008},
  abstract = {New technologies, either renewables-based or not, are
	
	confronted with both economic and technical constraints.
	
	Their development takes advantage of considering the basic
	
	laws of economics and thermodynamics. With respect to the
	
	latter, the exergy concept pops up. Although its fundamentals,
	
	that is, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, were already
	
	established in the 1800s, it is only in the last years that the exergy
	
	concept has gained a more widespread interest in process
	
	analysis, typically employed to identify inefficiencies. However,
	
	exergy analysis today is implemented far beyond technical
	
	analysis; it is also employed in environmental, (thermo)economic,
	
	and even sustainability analysis of industrial systems. Because
	
	natural ecosystems are also subjected to the basic laws of
	
	thermodynamics, it is another subject of exergy analysis. After
	
	an introduction on the concept itself, this review focuses on
	
	the potentialandlimitations of the exergy concept in (1) ecosystem
	
	analysis, utilized to describe maximum storage and maximum
	
	dissipation of energy flows (2); industrial system analysis: from
	
	single process analysis to complete process chain analysis
	
	(3); (thermo)economic analysis, with extended exergy accounting;
	
	and (4) environmental impact assessment throughout the
	
	whole life cycle with quantification of the resource intake and
	
	emission effects. Apart from technical system analysis, it
	
	proves that exergy as a tool in environmental impact analysis
	
	may be the most mature field of application, particularly
	
	with respect to resource and efficiency accounting, one of
	
	themajorchallengesinthedevelopmentofsustainabletechnology.
	
	Far less mature is the exergy analysis of natural ecosystems
	
	and the coupling with economic analysis, where a lively debate
	
	is presently going on about the actual merits of an exergybased
	
	approach.},
  journal = {ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE \& TECHNOLOGY},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {2221-2232}
}

@Article{Dewulf2005,
  author = {J Dewulf and H van Langenhove and B vande Velde},
  title = {Exergy-Based Efficiency and Renewability Assessment of Biofuel Production},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {This study presents an efficiency and renewability
	
	analysis of the production of three biofuels: rapeseed
	
	methyl ester (RME), soybean methyl ester (SME) and cornbased
	
	ethanol (EtOH). The overall production chains
	
	have been taken into account: not only the agricultural
	
	crop production and the industrial conversion into biofuel,
	
	but also production of the supply of agricultural resources
	
	(pesticides, fertilizers, fuel, seeding material) and industrial
	
	resources (energy and chemicals) to transform the
	
	crops into biofuel. Simultaneously, byproducts of the
	
	agricultural and industrial processes have been taken into
	
	account when resources have to be allocated to the
	
	biofuels. The technical analysis via the second law of
	
	thermodynamics revealed that corn-based EtOH results in
	
	the highest production rate with an exergetic fuel content
	
	of 68.8 GJ ha-1 yr-1, whereas the RME and SME results were
	
	limited to 47.5 and 16.4 GJ ha-1 yr-1. The allocated
	
	nonrenewable resource input to deliver these biofuels is
	
	significant: 16.5, 15.4, and 5.6 MJ ha-1 yr-1. This means that
	
	these biofuels, generally considered as renewable
	
	resources, embed a nonrenewable fraction of one-quarter
	
	for EtOH and even one-third for RME and SME. This
	
	type of analysis provides scientifically sound quantitative
	
	information that is necessary with respect to the sustainability
	
	analysis of so-called renewable energy.},
  journal = {Environ. Sci. Technol.},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {3878-3882}
}

@Article{Dewulf2005a,
  author = {Jo Dewulf and Herman Van Langenhove},
  title = {Integrating industrial ecology principles into a set of environmental sustainability indicators for technology assessment},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {This paper focuses on the environmental component of sustainability
	of technology, taking into
	
	account the role of industrial ecology. Assessment of environmental
	sustainability of technology traditionally
	
	focuses on immediate impact of technology on the environment through
	quantifying resource
	
	extraction and generated emissions. However, technology does not only
	exchange materials with the
	
	environment but also with the industrial society as a whole, the so-called
	industrial metabolism. A
	
	higher compatibility of a specific technology with the industrial
	system, as studied in industrial ecology,
	
	can result in lower resource extraction and reduced waste emission,
	indirectly contributing to a
	
	better environmental sustainability.
	
	Starting from the considerations above and based on the second law
	of thermodynamics, the paper
	
	presents a set of five environmental sustainability indicators for
	the assessment of products and
	
	production pathways, integrating industrial ecology principles. The
	indicators, all scaled between 0
	
	and 1, take into account: (1) renewability of resources; (2) toxicity
	of emissions; (3) input of used
	
	materials; (4) recoverability of products at the end of their use;
	(5) process efficiency.
	
	The applicability of the elaborated set of indicators is illustrated
	for different production pathways
	
	of alcohols (petrochemical and oleochemical based), polyethylene end-of-life
	options and electricity
	
	production from non-renewable (natural gas and fossil oil) and renewable
	resources (hydropower,
	
	photovoltaic conversion of solar irradiation).},
  journal = {Resources, Conservation and Recycling},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {419-432}
}

@Article{Dewulf2002,
  author = {Jo Dewulf and Herman Van Langenhove},
  title = {Assessment of the Sustainability of Technology by Means of a Thermodynamically Based Life Cycle Analysis},
  year = {2002},
  abstract = {Life cycle analysis is one of the tools in the assessment
	
	of the sustainability of technological options. It takes into account
	
	all effects on the ecosystem and the population which may
	
	endanger the possibilities of current and future generations. However,
	
	the main bottleneck in current LCA methodologies is the
	
	balancing of different effects, being all quantified on different
	
	scales. In this work, a methodology is proposed, which allows
	
	one to quantify different effects of the production, consumption
	
	and disposal of goods, and services on a single scale. The basis of
	
	the methodology is the second law of thermodynamics. All production,
	
	consumption and disposal processes affecting the ecosystem
	
	and the population, are quantified in terms of loss of exergy.
	
	The exergy content of a material is the maximum amount of energy
	
	which can be transformed into work at given environmental
	
	conditions. Next to the elaboration of the methodology, the new
	
	approach is illustrated by examples of the production of synthetic
	
	organic polymers, inorganic building insulation materials and
	
	different waste gas treatment options.},
  journal = {ESPR – Environ Sci \& Pollut Res},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {267-273}
}

@Article{Dewulf2001,
  author = {Jo Dewulf and Herman Van Langenhove and Jeroen Dirckx},
  title = {Exergy analysis in the assessment of the sustainability of waste gas treatment systems},
  year = {2001},
  abstract = {This study focuses on the sustainability of different technological
	options for the treatment of waste gases from a
	
	waste water treatment plant loaded with volatile organic compounds.
	The options considered are biofiltration, active
	
	carbon adsorption and catalytic and thermal oxidation. The amount
	of resources and utilities to construct and
	
	operate each system have been investigated from the point of view
	of the Second Law of thermodynamics. The unit
	
	in which all resources are treated is Joules of exergy. It was concluded
	that biofiltration was the most exergetically
	
	efficient system. The cumulative exergy consumption of the resources
	and utilities for construction and operation
	
	have been quantified in exergy terms. Further on, the requirements
	for the abatement of emissions generated by
	
	operating the waste gas treatment systems and the amount of renewables
	have been taken into account in the
	
	assessment of the sustainability of the waste gas treatment technologies.
	Finally, a comparison between exergy
	
	analysis and life cycle analysis in assessing the sustainability of
	the waste gas treatment options, is presented.},
  journal = {The Science of the Total Environment},
  volume = {273},
  pages = {41-52}
}

@Article{Dewulf2007a,
  author = {J Dewulf and G Vander Vorst and W Aelterman and B De Witte and H Vanbaelenb and H Van Langenhove},
  title = {Integral resource management by exergy analysis for the selection of a separation process in the pharmaceutical industry},
  year = {2007},
  abstract = {This paper reports a detailed analysis of the resource intake necessary
	for the separation of a
	
	mixture of diastereoisomers (2R,3R)-3-(3-methoxyphenyl)-N,N-2-trimethylpentanamine
	6 and
	
	(2R,3S)-3-(3-methoxyphenyl)-N,N-2-trimethylpentanamine 7 in the production
	of an active
	
	pharmaceutical ingredient. The resource intake analysis is based on
	exergy calculations of both
	
	material (chemicals) and energy (utilities) requirements. For two
	separation processes,
	
	crystallisation and preparative chromatography, analysis is not only
	carried out at the process
	
	level (a level), but also at the plant level (b level) taking into
	account the 6 preceeding synthesis
	
	steps towards the diastereoisomers and the supporting processes, e.g.
	for delivering heating media
	
	from natural gas or treating waste gases. Finally, exergetic life
	cycle analysis allowed the inclusion
	
	of the overall industrial metabolism (c level) that is required to
	deliver all energy and materials to
	
	the plant to carry out the separation.
	
	The results show that, in this example, the large scale chromatography
	process is not the most
	
	resource efficient option because of its high utilities requirement,
	despite its lower chemical
	
	requirement (180 MJ versus 122 MJ total requirement per mol of the
	RR stereoisomer (2R,3R)-3-
	
	(3-methoxyphenyl)-N,N-2-trimethylpentanamine monohydrochloride 8)
	(a level). Due to its
	
	higher efficiency, the plant only requires 4.6
	it selects chromatography
	
	instead of crystallisation (434 versus 415 MJ total requirement per
	mol of the RR stereoisomer 8)
	
	(b level). Since the efficiencies of the overall industry depend on
	the type of materials and energy
	
	that it has to deliver to the plant, overall resource withdrawal from
	the environment differs by
	
	4.2
	stereoisomer 8).
	
	The study has also shown that resource efficiency gain can be achieved
	by recycling solvents on
	
	the plant. Moreover, it is clear that there is more potential for
	resource efficiency improvement for
	
	the crystallisation than for chromatography because of the different
	nature of the resources
	
	consumed: chemicals, including solvents, versus utilities.},
  journal = {Green Chem.},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {785–791}
}

@Article{Dewulf2009,
  author = {J Dewulf and G Vander Vorst and N Versele and A Janssens and H Van Langenhovea},
  title = {Quantification of the impact of the end-of-life scenario on the overall resource consumption for a dwelling house},
  year = {2009},
  abstract = {In this work, fractions that are the result of the demolition phase
	of a dwelling house have been investigated
	
	with respect to their recovery potential: stony material, wood, metals,
	glass, synthetic materials
	
	and a rest fraction. Depending on their nature, different alternative
	end-of-life scenarios have been investigated
	
	to replace disposal, such as re-use, recycling or incineration with
	heat and electricity production.
	
	All resources necessary for these scenarios have been inventoried.
	At the same time, those that are not
	
	longer necessary for the disposal and those that would have been necessary
	to make the obtained products
	
	from virgin resources are quantified. Based on these three items,
	the overall balance results into
	
	the calculation of net virgin resource savings for different end-of-life
	scenarios, quantified in Cumulative
	
	Exergy Consumption (MJ of exergy). For this specific case, the best
	end-of-life scenario can save virgin
	
	natural resources with a content of 258 GJ of exergy. Looking at the
	entire life cycle of the house, i.e.
	
	construction phase, use phase and end-of-life phase, the quantitative
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@Article{Grigorev2004,
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@Article{Grigorev2004a,
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@Article{Grigorev2004b,
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@Article{Grigorev2004c,
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@Article{Grigorev2004d,
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@Article{Grigorev2004e,
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@Article{Grigorev2004f,
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@Article{Grigorev2004g,
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@Article{Grigorev2004h,
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@Article{Grigorev2004i,
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@Article{Grigorev2003,
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@Article{Grigorev2003a,
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@Article{Grigorev2003c,
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@Article{Grigorev2003d,
  author = {N A Grigor'ev},
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@Article{NA2003,
  author = {NA Grigor'ev},
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@Article{Grigorev2002,
  author = {N A Grigor'ev},
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  volume = {5(29)},
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@Article{Grigorev2000,
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  pages = {47-58}
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@Article{Grigorev2000a,
  author = {N A Grigor'ev},
  title = {The average mineralogical composition of the upper continental crust},
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  pages = {3-21},
  note = {In Russian}
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@Article{Grigorev2007,
  author = {N A Grigor'ev},
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}

@Article{Grigorev2006,
  author = {N A Grigor'ev},
  title = {Distribution of magnesium and calcium masses in the upper continental crust},
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@Article{Grigorev2006a,
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@Article{Grigorev2006b,
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  note = {In Russian}
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@Inproceedings{Grigorev2000b,
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@Article{Grigorev2006c,
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@Article{Holland1990,
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@Inproceedings{Jorgensen2000,
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@Inbook{Kauffman1994,
  author = {R A Kauffman and D Van Dyk},
  title = {Industrial Minerals and Rocks},
  year = {1994},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {D. D. Carr},
  publisher = {Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc.},
  chapter = {Feldspar},
  pages = {473-481}
}

@Article{Kelemen2008,
  author = {Peter B Kelemen and Jürg Matter},
  title = {In situ carbonation of peridotite for CO2 storage},
  year = {2008},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {PNAS},
  volume = {105},
  number = {45},
  pages = {17295–17300}
}

@Article{Kellogg1977,
  author = {H H Kellogg},
  title = {Sizing up the energy requeriments for producing primary metals},
  year = {1977},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Enginnering and Mining Journal},
  volume = {178},
  pages = {61-65}
}

@Techreport{Kelly2008,
  author = {T D Kelly and G R Matos and D A Buckingham and C A DiFrancesco and K E Porter and C Berry and M Crane and T Goonan and J Sznopek},
  title = {Historical Statistics for Mineral and Material Commodities in the United States},
  year = {Accessed 2008},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {US Geological Survey (USGS)},
  type = {Data Series 140},
  number = {Supersedes Open-File Report 01-006. Version 2},
  address = {Reston, Virginia, USA},
  note = {Online only: http://minerals.usgs.gov/ds/2005/140/}
}

@Book{Kendall1974,
  author = {Henry M Kendall and Robert M Glendinning and Clifford HMacFaddenandRichardF Logan},
  title = {Introduction to Physical Geography},
  year = {1974},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc},
  address = {New York},
  edition = {2nd}
}

@Article{Kerr1998,
  author = {R A Kerr},
  title = {The Next Oil Crisis Looms Large-And Perhaps Close},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Science},
  volume = {281},
  pages = {1128-1131}
}

@Article{Khan2007,
  author = {N Khan and Z Saleem and A Wahid},
  title = {Review of natural energy sources and global power needs},
  year = {2008},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews},
  volume = {12},
  number = {7},
  pages = {1959-1973}
}

@Article{Kihlstedt1975a,
  author = {P G Kihlstedt},
  title = {Energy and mineral exploitation techniques},
  year = {1975},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Scandinavian journal of metallurgy},
  volume = {8},
  number = {4},
  pages = {145-149}
}

@Article{Kihlstedt1975,
  author = {P G Kihlstedt},
  title = {Energy and Mineral Exploitation Techniques},
  year = {1975},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy},
  volume = {4},
  number = {145-149}
}

@Book{Kinstry1997,
  author = {Hugh ExtonMc Kinstry},
  title = {Geología de Minas},
  year = {1977},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Ediciones Omega, S.A.},
  edition = {4th}
}

@Article{Kister2005,
  author = {Philippe Kister and Philippe Vieillard and MIchel Cuney and David Quirt and Emmanuel Laverret},
  title = {Thermodynamic constraints on the mineralogical and fluid composition evolution in a clastic sedimentary basin: the Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada)},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Eur. J. Mineral},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {325-342}
}

@Book{Knight1999,
  author = {P G Knight},
  title = {Glaciers},
  year = {1999},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Cheltenham, Stanley Thornes}
}

@Article{Komada1996,
  author = {N Komada and D P Moecher and E F Westrum and B S Hemingway and M Y Zolotov and Y V Semenov and I L Khodakovsky},
  title = {Thermodynamic properties of scapolites at temperatures ranging from 10 K to 1000 K},
  year = {1996},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {J. Chem. Thermodynamics},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {941-973}
}

@Article{Komada1995,
  author = {N Komada and E F Westrum and B SandZolotov,MY Hemingway and Y V Semenov and I L Khodakovsky and M Anovitz},
  title = {Thermodynamic properties of sodalite at temperatures from 15 K to 1000 K},
  year = {1995},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {J Chem Thermodyn},
  volume = {27},
  number = {10},
  pages = {1119-1132}
}

@Book{Krauskopf1979,
  author = {K B Krauskopf},
  title = {Introduction to Geochemistry},
  year = {1979},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {McGraw-Hill},
  address = {New York}
}

@Inbook{Krautkraemer2005,
  author = {J A Krautkraemer},
  title = {Scarcity and Growth Revisited},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {R.D. Simpson and M.A. Toman and R.U. Ayres},
  publisher = {Resources for the Future},
  address = {Washington DC, USA},
  chapter = {Economics of Scarcity},
  pages = {54-77}
}

@Book{Kubaschewski1972,
  author = {O Kubaschewski},
  title = {The thermodynamic properties of double oxides (A review)},
  year = {1972},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {High Temp., High Press},
  volume = {4}
}

@Book{Lvovich1979,
  author = {M I L'vovich},
  title = {World Water Resources and their Future},
  year = {1979},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {LithoCrafters, Inc.},
  address = {Chelsea, Michigan}
}

@Article{Laherrere1994,
  author = {J Laherrere},
  title = {Published figures and political reserves},
  year = {1994},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {World Oil},
  volume = {33}
}

@Article{Langmuir1978,
  author = {D Langmuir},
  title = {Uranium solution-mineral equilibria at low temperatures with applications to sedimentary ore deposits},
  year = {1978},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Geochim. et Cosmoch. Acta},
  volume = {42},
  number = {6},
  pages = {547-565}
}

@Inbook{Langmuir1977,
  author = {D Langmuir and K Applin},
  title = {Short Papers of the U.S. Geological Survey Uranium Thorium Symp.},
  year = {1977},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {Campbell, J.A.},
  publisher = {U. S. Geol. Survey Circ.},
  chapter = {Refinement of the thermodynamic properties of uranium minerals and
	dissolved species with applications to the chemistry of ground waters
	in sandstone-type uranium deposits},
  pages = {57-66}
}

@Article{Lasky1950,
  author = {S G Lasky},
  title = {How tonnage and grade relations help predict ore reserves},
  year = {1950},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Eng. Mining Jour.},
  volume = {151},
  pages = {81-85}
}

@Book{Latimer1952,
  author = {W M Latimer},
  title = {The oxidation states of the elements and their potentials in aqueous solutions},
  year = {1952},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Prentice-Hall},
  address = {New York}
}

@Article{Lee1998,
  author = {C-H Lee},
  title = {Formulation of resource depletion index},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Resources, Conservation and Recycling},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {285-298}
}

@Book{Leeden1990,
  author = {F van der Leeden and F Troise and D K Tood},
  title = {The Water Encyclopaedia},
  year = {1990},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Lewis Publishers},
  address = {Chelsea, Michigan}
}

@Book{Leet1982,
  author = {L Don Leet and Sheldon Judson and Marvin E Kauffman},
  title = {Physical Geology},
  year = {1982},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Prentice-Hall, Inc},
  edition = {6th}
}

@Article{Li1982,
  author = {Y H Li},
  title = {A brief discussion on the mean oceanic residence time of elements},
  year = {1982},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta},
  volume = {46},
  pages = {2671-2675}
}

@Book{Lindsay1979,
  author = {W L Lindsay},
  title = {Chemical Equilibria in Soils},
  year = {1979},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  address = {New York}
}

@Inbook{Livingstone1963,
  author = {D A Livingstone},
  title = {Data of Geochemistry},
  year = {1963},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {M. Fleischer},
  publisher = {US Geological Survey},
  edition = {6th},
  chapter = {Chemical composition of rivers and lakes}
}

@Article{Lloyd1980,
  author = {W G Lloyd and D A Davenport},
  title = {Applying thermodynamics to fossil fuel},
  year = {1980},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Journal of chemical education},
  volume = {57},
  pages = {56-60}
}

@Book{Lovelock2006,
  author = {J Lovelock},
  title = {The revenge of Gaia: Why the Earth Is Fighting Back - and How We Can Still Save Humanity},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Penguin Press}
}

@Book{gaia,
  author = {J Lovelock},
  title = {Gaia: A new look at life on Earth},
  year = {1979},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press}
}

@Phdthesis{Lozano1989,
  author = {M A Lozano},
  title = {Metodología para el análisis exergético de calderas de vapor en centrales térmicas},
  year = {1989},
  abstract = {},
  school = {Universidad de Zaragoza}
}

@Inproceedings{Lozano1988,
  author = {M A Lozano and A Valero},
  title = {Methodology for calculating exergy in chemical processes},
  year = {1988},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {ASME. AES},
  editor = {Wepfer, W.J. and Tsatsaronis, G. and Bajura, R.A.}
}

@Inproceedings{Lujala2003,
  author = {Paivi Lujala},
  title = {Classification of natural resources},
  year = {2003},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {2003 ECPR Joint Session of Workshops},
  address = {Edinburgh, UK},
  note = {Online under: http://www.essex.ac.uk/ECPR/events/jointsessions/paperarchive/edinburgh/ws9/Lujala.pdf}
}

@Inproceedings{Lujula2003,
  author = {P Lujula},
  title = {Classification of natural resources},
  year = {2003},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {2003 ECPR Joint Session of Workshops,},
  address = {Edinburgh, UK}
}

@Article{Lynch1982,
  author = {D Lynch},
  title = {Standard free energy of formation of NiAs},
  year = {1982},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B},
  volume = {13},
  number = {2},
  pages = {285-288}
}

@Techreport{Laechelt2004,
  author = {S Lächelt},
  title = {Geology and Mineral resources of Mozambique},
  year = {2004},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {Direção Nacional de Geologia Mozambique}
}

@Article{Machado2001,
  author = {I F Machado and S FdM Figueiroa},
  title = {Years of Mining in Brazil: A Brief Review},
  year = {2001},
  abstract = {Upon the arrival of Portuguese settlers to Brazil in 1500, there was
	an obsession to find precious metals and gems. However, it took almost
	two centuries to find economic and abundant gold deposits in Minas
	Gerais. Gold and diamonds generated fabulous wealth to the Portuguese
	crown during the 18th century and part of the next. As the alluvial
	deposits were depleted, better techniques had to be employed to assure
	profitability, but a number of failures apparently eroded the motivation
	of Brazilian entrepreneurs to invest in mining during the Empire.
	As the population grew and the country started its industrialization
	process in the 20th century, the mining industry diversified intensely
	and became one of the six largest mineral producers in the world.
	Notwithstanding these achievements, it is likely that the best is
	yet to come, regarding gold, diamonds and other valuable minerals.
	? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.},
  journal = {Resources Policy},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {9-24}
}

@Book{Mackenzie2006,
  author = {F T Mackenzie and A Lerman},
  title = {Carbon in the Geobiosphere - Earth's Outer Shell-},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Springer},
  volume = {25}
}

@Article{Maeder1996,
  author = {U K Maeder and K Ramseyer and E J Daniels and E Althaus},
  title = {Gibbs free energy of buddingtonite (NH4AlSi3O8) extrapolated from experiments and comparison to natural occurrences and polyhedral estimation},
  year = {1996},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Eur. J. Mineral},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {755-766}
}

@Book{Malthus1798,
  author = {Thomas R Malthus},
  title = {An Essay on the Principle of Population},
  year = {1798},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Methuen and Co., Ltd. 1904. Ed. Edwin Cannan. Library of Economics
	and Liberty.},
  note = {Retrieved May 18, 2006 from the World Wide Web: http://www.econlib.org/library/Malthus/malPop1.html}
}

@Inproceedings{Martinez2006a,
  author = {A Martinez and A Valero and A Valero D and I Arauzo},
  title = {Accounting the Earth's mineral capital for the most demanded minerals in the industry. The case of bauxite, alumina and aluminium and limestone.},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {Biennial international workshop. Advances in energy studies},
  address = {Porto Venere, Italy}
}

@Inproceedings{Martinez2006,
  author = {A Martinez and A Valero and A D Valero},
  title = {Comparing the earth's minerals wealth from the point of view of emergy and exergetic cost analysis},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {4th Biennial Emergy Research Conference},
  address = {University of Florida Center for Environmental Policy, Gainesville}
}

@Techreport{Martinot2006,
  author = {E Martinot},
  title = {Renewables. Global status report. 2006 update},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century},
  note = {Online under: http://www.ren21.net/}
}

@Book{Mason1966,
  author = {B Mason},
  title = {Principles of Geochemistry},
  year = {1966},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  edition = {3rd}
}

@Article{Massonne1997,
  author = {H J Massonne and Z Szpurka},
  title = {Thermodynamic properties of white micas on the basis of high-pressure experiments in the systems K2O-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O and K2O-FeO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O},
  year = {1997},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Lithos 4},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1-3},
  pages = {229-250}
}

@Inproceedings{Masters1994,
  author = {C D Masters and E D Attanasi and D H Root},
  title = {World petroleum assessment and analysis},
  year = {1994},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 14th World Petroleum Congress},
  publisher = {John Wiley},
  address = {Stavanger, Norway},
  pages = {1-13}
}

@Article{McDonough1995,
  author = {W F McDonough and S -s Sun},
  title = {The composition of the Earth},
  year = {1995},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Chemical Geology},
  volume = {120},
  pages = {223-253}
}

@Book{MchedlovPetrossyan1971,
  author = {O P Mchedlov-Petrossyan},
  title = {The chemistry of Inorganic Building Materials},
  year = {1971},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Moscow Stryizdat}
}

@Article{McKelvey1972,
  author = {V E McKelvey},
  title = {Mineral resources estimates and public policy},
  year = {1972},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {American Scientist},
  volume = {60},
  number = {1},
  pages = {32-40}
}

@Article{McLennan2001,
  author = {S M McLennan},
  title = {Relationships between the trace element composition of sedimentary rocks and upper continental crust},
  year = {2001},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Geochemistry geophysics geosystems},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {2000GC000109}
}

@Article{McLennan1996,
  author = {S M McLennan and S R Taylor},
  title = {Heat flow and the chemical composition of continental crust},
  year = {1996},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Journal of Geology},
  volume = {104},
  pages = {369-377}
}

@Book{Meadows1992,
  author = {D H Meadows and D L Meadows and J Randers},
  title = {Más allá de los límites del crecimiento},
  year = {1992},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {El País Aguilar}
}

@Book{Meadows1993,
  author = {Donella H Meadows and Dennis L Meadows and Jorgen Randers},
  title = {Beyond the Limits: Confronting Global Collapse, Envisioning a Sustainable Future},
  year = {1993},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Chelsea Green Publishing Company},
  isbn = {0930031628}
}

@Book{Meadows1972,
  author = {D H Meadows and D L Meadows and J Randers and W W Behrens},
  title = {The Limits to Growth},
  year = {1972},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Universe Books}
}

@Book{Meadows2004,
  author = {D H Meadows and J Randers and D L Meadows},
  title = {Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update},
  year = {2004},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Chelsea Green Publishing Company},
  address = {White River Junction, Vt}
}

@Article{Meester2006,
  author = {B De Meester and J Dewulf and A Janssens and H van Langenhove},
  title = {An Improved Calculation of the Exergy of Natural Resources for Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment (ELCA)},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {The focus in environmental research is shifting from
	
	emission abatement to critical process analysis, including
	
	assessment of resource consumption. The exergy theory
	
	offers a thermodynamic methodology to account for
	
	the consumption of natural resources. However, exergy
	
	data on mineral resources available in the literature are
	
	inadequate to apply to exergetic life cycle analysis, due to
	
	incompleteness, inconsistencies, and a dated thermochemical
	
	basis. An uncertainty assessment of the data has
	
	to be performed as well. In this work, three recent
	
	thermochemical databases were applied to evaluate the
	
	chemical exergy of 85 elements and 73 minerals, 21 of which
	
	had not yet been quantified in the literature. The process
	
	required the choice of a new reference species for
	
	aluminum. Muscovite was selected, giving rise to a chemical
	
	exergy of 809.4 kJ/mol for aluminum. The theory proved
	
	to be robust for the exergy of chemical elements, as exergy
	
	values differing by 1.2
	
	literature were found. On the contrary, the exergy values
	
	for minerals differed by factors up to 14 from literature values,
	
	due to the application of recent thermochemical values
	
	and consistently selected reference species. The consistent
	
	dataset of this work will enable straightforward resource
	
	intake evaluation through an exergetic life cycle assessment.},
  journal = {Environ. Sci. Technol.},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {6844-6851}
}

@Article{Meester2009,
  author = {B De Meester and J Dewulf and S Verbekea and A Janssensb and H Van Langenhove},
  title = {Exergetic life-cycle assessment (ELCA) for resource consumption evaluation in the built environment},
  year = {2009},
  abstract = {Resource management becomes a key issue in the development of sustainable
	technology. This paper envisages a quantification of all
	
	energy and material needs for a family dwelling, both for the construction
	aspects (‘embodied energy and materials’) and usage aspects.
	
	To do so, an exergetic life-cycle assessment has been carried out
	that enables the quantification of all necessary natural energy
	
	and material resources simultaneously. The case study covered 65 optimized
	Belgian family dwelling types with low energy input
	
	(56 MJ/(m3 year)). The study shows that cumulative annual exergy demand
	is of the order of 65 GJexergy/year, with a limited dependency
	
	on the construction type: cavity wall, external insulation or wooden
	frame. For the cavity wall and external insulation building type,
	nonrenewable
	
	inputs are dominant for the construction with 85–86
	exergy to be extracted out of the environment. For the
	
	wooden frame, non-renewable resource intake for construction remains
	62
	
	during the use phase are dominant in the overall resource intake with
	a 60
	
	family dwellings less fossil resource dependant, the study learns
	that particularly reduction of heating requirements should be envisaged.},
  journal = {Building and Environment 44},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {11-17}
}

@Article{Melcher2006,
  author = {F Melcher and T Oberthür and D Rammlmair},
  title = {Geochemical and mineralogical distribution of germanium in the Khusib Springs Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag sulfide deposit, Otavi Mountain Land, Namibia},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Ore Geology Reviews},
  volume = {28},
  number = {1},
  pages = {32-56}
}

@Inbook{Menzie2005,
  author = {W David Menzie and Donald A Singer and John H Deyoung},
  title = {Scarcity and Growth Revisited},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {R. David Simpson and Michael A. Toman and Robert U. Ayres},
  publisher = {Resources for the Future},
  chapter = {Mineral Resources and Consumption in the Twenty-First Century},
  pages = {33-53}
}

@Article{Merli1996,
  author = {L Merli and J Fuger},
  title = {Thermochemistry of selected lanthanide and actinide hydroxycarbonates and carbonates},
  year = {1996},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Radiochim Acta},
  volume = {74},
  pages = {37-43}
}

@Article{Merli1997,
  author = {L Merli and B Lambert and J Fuger},
  title = {Thermochemistry of lanthanum, neodymium, samarium and americium trihydroxides and their relation to the corresponding hydroxycarbonates},
  year = {1997},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {J Nucl Mater},
  volume = {247},
  pages = {172-176}
}

@Article{Meyer2004,
  author = {F M Meyer},
  title = {Availability of Bauxite Reserves},
  year = {2004},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Natural Resources Research},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {161-172}
}

@Article{Michl2007,
  author = {T R Michl and D K Foley},
  title = {Crossing Hubbert's peak: Portfolio effects in a growth model with exhaustible resources},
  year = {2007},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Structural Change and Economic Dynamics},
  volume = {18},
  pages = {212-230}
}

@Book{Miller1981,
  author = {D H Miller},
  title = {Energy at the surface of the earth},
  year = {1981},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Academic Press},
  volume = {27}
}

@Book{Millero2001,
  author = {F J Millero},
  title = {Physical Chemistry of Natural Waters},
  year = {2001},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Wiley-Interscience Series in Geochemistry}
}

@Book{Millero1996,
  author = {F J Millero},
  title = {Chemical Oceanography},
  year = {1996},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {CRC Press},
  edition = {2nd}
}

@Book{Mills1974,
  author = {K C Mills},
  title = {Thermodynamic data for inorganic sulphides , selenides and tellurides},
  year = {1974},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Butterworths},
  address = {London}
}

@Article{Miyano1987,
  author = {T Miyano and N J Beukes},
  title = {Physicochemical environments for the formation of quartz free manganese oxide ores from the early proterozoic formation Kalahari manganese field, South Africa},
  year = {1987},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Econ. Geol.},
  volume = {82},
  pages = {706-718}
}

@Book{MMSD2002,
  author = { MMSD},
  title = {Breaking new ground},
  year = {2002},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Earthscan Publications Ltd}
}

@Article{Moore2001,
  author = {G E Moore},
  title = {Structure and metamorphism of the Keene-Brattle-boro Area, New Hampshire-Vermont},
  year = {2001},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Geoch. et Cosmoch. Acta},
  volume = {65},
  number = {12},
  pages = {2007-2016}
}

@Techreport{Moreira2002,
  author = {J R Moreira},
  title = {Can Renewable Energy Make Important Contribution to GHG Atmospheric Stabilization?},
  year = {2002},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {LAMNET},
  type = {Third Project Workshop},
  address = {Brasilia, Brazil}
}

@Article{Moreira2006,
  author = {R Moreira},
  title = {Global Biomass Energy Potential},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Earth and Environmental Science},
  volume = {11},
  number = {2},
  pages = {313-333}
}

@Book{Morral1985,
  author = {F R Morral and E Jimeno and P Molera},
  title = {Metalurgia General},
  year = {1985},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Reverte S.A.},
  address = {Barcelona},
  volume = {I}
}

@Techreport{Morse2000,
  author = {D G Morse and A N Glover},
  title = {Events Affecting the U.S. Nonfuel Minerals Industry 1900-2000},
  year = {2000},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)},
  note = {http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/timeline/ 20th\\_century\\_review.pdf}
}

@Misc{Mottl,
  author = {M Mottl},
  title = {Composition of Seawater: Salinity of the Major Ions},
  year = {},
  abstract = {},
  howpublished = {Chemocal Oceanography (OC 623); www.soest.hawaii.edu}
}

@Article{Mudd2007,
  author = {G M Mudd},
  title = {Global trends in gold mining: Towards quantifying environmental and resource sustainability?},
  year = {2007},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Resources Policy},
  volume = {32},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {42-56}
}

@Article{Mudd2007a,
  author = {G M Mudd},
  title = {An analysis of historic production trends in Australian base metal mining},
  year = {2007},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Ore Geology Reviews},
  volume = {32},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {227-261}
}

@Article{Mudd2007b,
  author = {G M Mudd},
  title = {Gold mining in Australia: linking historical trends and environmental and resource sustainability},
  year = {2007},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Environmental Science and Policy},
  volume = {10},
  number = {(7-8)},
  pages = {629-644}
}

@Techreport{Mudd2007c,
  author = {G M Mudd},
  title = {The Sustainability of Mining in Australia: Key Production Trends and Their Environmental Implications},
  year = {2007},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {Joint Research Report Mineral Policy Institute (MPI) and Department
	of Civil Engineering, Monash University},
  type = {Research Report 5},
  address = {Australia},
  note = {Online under http://civil.eng.monash.edu.au/about/staff/muddpersonal/rr5/}
}

@Inproceedings{Mudd2004,
  author = {G M Mudd},
  title = {Sustainable Mining: An evaluation of changing ore grades and waste volumes},
  year = {2004},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Sustainability Engineering \& Science.
	Auckland, New Zealand. 6-9 July},
  address = {Auckland, New Zealand}
}

@Article{Munk1998,
  author = {W Munk and C Wunsch},
  title = {Abyssal recipes II: energetics of tidal and wind mixing},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Deep-Sea Research, Part I (Oceanographic Research Papers)},
  volume = {45},
  number = {12},
  pages = {1977-2010}
}

@Article{Murao2007,
  author = {S Murao and M Deb and M Furuno},
  title = {Mineralogical evolution of indium in high grade tin-polymetallic hydrothermal veins-A comparative study from Tosham, Haryana state, India and Goka, Naegi district, Japan},
  year = {2008},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Ore Geology Reviews},
  volume = {33},
  number = {3-4},
  pages = {490-504}
}

@Inproceedings{Muys2001,
  author = {B Muys and T Wagendrop and R Aerts and J García Quijano},
  title = {Ecological sustainability assessment of carbon sequestration and substitution projects using the exergy concept},
  year = {2001},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Conference Carbon sinks and Biodiversity, Liège}
}

@Inbook{Naredo2008,
  author = {J M Naredo},
  title = {El final de la era del petróleo},
  year = {2008},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {J. Sempere and E. Tello},
  publisher = {Icaria editorial},
  chapter = {El conflicto entre eficacia y sostenibilidad utilizar el capital
	mineral de la tierra o el flujo solar y sus derivados renovables},
  pages = {185-199}
}

@Book{Naredo1987,
  author = {J M Naredo},
  title = {La economía en evolución. Historia y perspectivas de características básicas del pensamiento económico.},
  year = {1987},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Ediciones Siglo XXI},
  address = {Madrid}
}

@Techreport{NASA2004,
  author = { NASA},
  title = {Surface meteorology and solar energy (release 5)},
  year = {2004},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {Earth Science Enterprise Program. NASA Langley Research Center},
  address = {Langley, VA},
  note = {Online under: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gob/sse/}
}

@Book{Naumov1971,
  author = {G B Naumov and B N Ryzhenko and I L Khodakovsky},
  title = {Handbook of thermodynamic Data},
  year = {1971},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Moscou Atomizdat},
  note = {In Russian}
}

@Article{Nesbitt1984,
  author = {H W Nesbitt and G M Young},
  title = {Prediction of some weathering trends of plutonic and volcanic rocks based on thermodynamic and kinetic considerations},
  year = {1984},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta},
  volume = {48},
  number = {7},
  pages = {1523-1534}
}

@Article{Newson1996,
  author = {H E Newson and K WW Sims and P D Noll and W L Jaeger and S A Maehr and T B Beserra},
  title = {The depletion of tungsten in the bulk silicate Earth: constraints on core formation},
  year = {1996},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta},
  volume = {60},
  pages = {1155-1169}
}

@Article{Nguyen2007,
  author = {H X Nguyen and R Yamamoto},
  title = {Modification of ecological footprint evaluation method to include non-renewable resource consumption using thermodynamic approach},
  year = {2007},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Resources, Conservation and Recycling},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {870-884}
}

@Article{ONions1979,
  author = {R K O'Nions and N M Evensen and P J Hamilton},
  title = {Geochemical modeling of mantle differentiation and crustal growth},
  year = {1979},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {J. Geophys. Res.},
  volume = {84},
  pages = {6091-6101}
}

@Inbook{Ober1994,
  author = {J A Ober},
  title = {Industrial Minerals and Rocks},
  year = {1994},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {D. D. Carr},
  publisher = {Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc.},
  edition = {6th},
  chapter = {Strontium minerals},
  pages = {1003-1009}
}

@Book{Odum1983,
  author = {H T Odum},
  title = {System Ecology: An Introduction},
  year = {1983},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {John Wiley and Sons},
  address = {New York}
}

@Article{Odum2005,
  author = {H T Odum and E C Odum},
  title = {The prosperous way down},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy},
  volume = {Article in press},
  note = {www.sciencedirect.com}
}

@Book{Odum1996,
  author = {H T Odum},
  title = {Environmental Accounting. Emergy and Environmental Decision Making.},
  year = {1996},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {John Wiley \& Sons, inc.},
  edition = {1st}
}

@Book{OECD2006,
  author = { OECD},
  title = {Advanced nuclear fuel cycles and radioactive waste management},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {OECD/NEA},
  number = {ISBN: 92-64-02485-9}
}

@Techreport{OECD2005,
  author = { OECD},
  title = {Uranium 2005 - Resources, Production and Demand},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the IAEA},
  note = {Online under: http://www.nea.fr/html/ndd/reports/ 2006/uranium2005-english.pdf}
}

@Techreport{OECD2004,
  author = { OECD},
  title = {Uranium 2003: resources, production and demand},
  year = {2004},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency},
  type = {Joint report},
  address = {Paris}
}

@Book{BGS1956,
  author = { OGS},
  title = {Statistical Summary},
  year = {Various years (1956 - 1964)},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Overseas Geological Surveys}
}

@Article{Opschoor1998,
  author = { Opschoor},
  title = {The value of ecosystem services: whose values?},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Ecological Economics},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {41-43}
}

@Techreport{Oroya2006,
  author = { Oroya},
  title = {Third qarter activities and cash flow report for the period ended 31 March 2006},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {Oroya Mining Limited},
  note = {Online under: http://www.oroya.com.au}
}

@Inbook{Ortiz1999,
  author = {A Ortiz},
  title = {Desarrollo económico y deterioro ecológico},
  year = {1999},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {J. M. Naredo and A. Valero},
  publisher = {Fundación Argentaria},
  chapter = {Cuantificación de la extracción de rocas y minerales de la corteza
	terrestre},
  pages = {103-154}
}

@Book{Ottonello1997,
  author = {G Ottonello},
  title = {Principles of geochemistry},
  year = {1997},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Columbia University Press},
  address = {New York}
}

@Inbook{Ottonello1990,
  author = {G Ottonello and A Della G and A Dal N and F Baccaarin},
  title = {Thermodynamic Data},
  year = {1990},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {Saxena, S.K.},
  publisher = {Springer Verlag},
  chapter = {A structure Energy model for C2/c Pyroxenes in the system Na-Mg-Ca-Mn-Fe-Al-Cr-Ti-Si-O},
  pages = {194-238}
}

@Article{Pacala2004,
  author = {Stephen Pacala and Robert Socolow},
  title = {Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies},
  year = {2004},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Science},
  volume = {305},
  pages = {968-972}
}

@Article{Pasche2002,
  author = {Markus Pasche},
  title = {Technical progress, structural change, and the environmental Kuznets curve},
  year = {2002},
  abstract = {The paper shows that under reasonable assumptions about technical
	progress a positive sustainable growth rate fails to exist. The argument
	is that a growing part of income has to be spent for continuing technical
	progress in order to compensate the pollution effects of growth.
	Hence in the long run either the sustainability condition will be
	violated or the growth rate must decline to zero. Furthermore, in
	finite time the level of wealth will decrease despite growing income
	and a constant pollution level, thus further growth is no longer
	reasonable. Similar arguments also hold for the environmental effects
	of structural change favoring less pollution-intensive economic activities.
	An evolutionary change of goods and production technology may shift
	the limits of growth and is hence a prerequisite for a long-run EKC.},
  journal = {Ecological Economics},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {381-389}
}

@Book{Paterson1994,
  author = {W SB Paterson},
  title = {The Physics of Glaciers},
  year = {1994},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Pergamon},
  address = {Oxford},
  edition = {3rd}
}

@Article{Patterson1998,
  author = {M Patterson},
  title = {Commensuration and theories of value in ecological economics},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Ecological Economics},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {105-125}
}

@Article{Patterson1998a,
  author = {Murray Patterson},
  title = {Commensuration and theories of value in ecological economics},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {Without a theory of value (price) in ecological economics, the valuation
	of ecosystem and economic resources cannot be rigorously defended.
	At the crux of the matter is the ‘valuation’ or ‘mixed units’ problem
	of commensurating biophysical inputs:outputs which are different.
	This paper critically reviews candidate theories of value which have
	emerged in the ecological economics literature for dealing with this
	problem. First of all, the Neo-Ricardian approach, using Sraffa-type
	systems is discussed. In particular, Judson’s assertion that the
	Sraffa system is suitable for ecological economics is questioned,
	as it is based on ‘circular flow’, generation of a ‘surplus’ and
	‘exchange values’. None of these ideas are consistent with a biophysical
	characterisation of an economic system, which is paramount in ecological
	economics. A more fruitful avenue for establishing a biophysical
	theory of value based on ecological and thermodynamic principles,
	is to extend Patterson’s quality equivalent methodology (QEM) to
	explicitly include mass flows in addition to energy. At this point
	a model close to Costanza and Hannon’s biosphere model of price determination
	emerges. The extended QEM model however, has a number of important
	advantages over the Costanza–Hannon model because it has a more generalised
	formulation and is not reliant on necessarily using solar energy
	as the numeraire. The paper concludes with a discussion of some outstanding
	issues that need to be resolved before a biophysical theory of value
	can be properly established in ecological economics.},
  journal = {Ecological Economics},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {105-125}
}

@Inproceedings{Patterson1998b,
  author = {M Patterson},
  title = {Understanding Energy Quality in Ecological and Economic Systems: A Brief Explanation of the QEM},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {Advances in Energy Studies - Energy Flows and Economy},
  address = {Musis (Roma)},
  pages = {257-274}
}

@Article{Patterson2006,
  author = {Murray G Patterson and Graeme C Wake and Robert McKibbin and Anthony O Cole},
  title = {Ecological pricing and transformity: A solution method for systems rarely at general equilibrium},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {This paper outlines a new method for determining ecological prices/transformities
	in complicated ecological–economic systems where non-equilibrium
	prices are likely to be prevalent. That is, an eigenvalue–eigenvector
	mathematical solution method for solving an overdetermined, homogeneous
	system of simultaneous linear equations is proposed and tested. Previous
	mathematical approaches to the problem of ecological pricing are
	reviewed before proceeding with an explanation of the new solution
	method for the determination of ecological prices. The proposed method
	seeks to avoid the need to make a number of untenable assumptions
	used in previous methods—e.g., the assumption that there necessarily
	needs to be an equal number of processes and quantities in the ecological–economic
	system. The paper also provides practical advice and an algorithm
	for solving the ecological pricing},
  journal = {Ecological Economics},
  volume = {56},
  pages = {412-423}
}

@Book{Pauling1947,
  author = {L Pauling},
  title = {General Chemistry},
  year = {1947},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Dover Pubs}
}

@Article{Pearce1974,
  author = {D Pearce},
  title = {The economics of natural resource depletion},
  year = {1974},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Resources Policy},
  pages = {57-59}
}

@Book{Peixoto1991,
  author = {José P Peixoto and Abraham H Oort},
  title = {Physics of Climate},
  year = {1991},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {American Institute of Physics}
}

@Book{Perry1992,
  author = {R H Perry and C H Chilton},
  title = {Manual del Ingeniero Químico},
  year = {1992},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {McGraw-Hill de México},
  address = {México},
  edition = {2nd}
}

@Book{Peters1978,
  author = {W C Peters},
  title = {Exploration and mining geology},
  year = {1978},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {John Wiley and Sons}
}

@Techreport{Philibert2004,
  author = {C Philibert},
  title = {Case study 1: concentrating solar power technologies},
  year = {2004},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {OECD Environmental Directorate, International Energy Agency},
  type = {International Energy Technology Collaboration and Climate Change
	Mitigation},
  address = {Paris}
}

@Article{Phillips1976,
  author = {W GB Phillips and D P Edwards},
  title = {Metal prices as a function of ore grade},
  year = {1976},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Resources Policy},
  volume = {2},
  number = {3},
  pages = {167-178}
}

@Book{cipw,
  author = {A R Philpotts},
  title = {Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology},
  year = {1990},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Prentice Hall},
  address = {Englewood Cliffs}
}

@Misc{Pidwirny2006,
  author = {M Pidwirny},
  title = {Fundamentals of Physical Geography},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  howpublished = {Online under: http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/contents.html}
}

@Book{Pilson1998,
  author = {M E Pilson},
  title = {An Introduction to the Chemistry of the Sea},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Prentice Hall},
  address = {New Jersey}
}

@Article{Pinaev2006,
  author = {G F Pinaev},
  title = {Standard reference exergies of chemical elements in the oceanic reference medium. II. Estimation of the equilibrium of ecospecies in the oceanic medium},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics},
  volume = {79},
  number = {5},
  pages = {1039-1049}
}

@Article{Pinaev2006a,
  author = {G F Pinaev},
  title = {Standard reference exergies of chemical elements in the oceanic reference medium. I. Consideration of modern hydrochemical data on the concentrations of elements in the oceanic medium and the deviation of their reactivity from the neutral one},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics},
  volume = {79},
  number = {5},
  pages = {1028-1038}
}

@Article{Pinaev1998,
  author = {G F Pinaev},
  title = {New system of standard exergies of chemical elements. I. Standard exergies of ionogen elements},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics},
  volume = {71},
  number = {3},
  pages = {516-520}
}

@Article{Pinaev1998a,
  author = {G F Pinaev},
  title = {New system of standard chemical elements. II. Standard exergies of complexogen elements},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics},
  volume = {71},
  number = {6},
  pages = {1030-1036}
}

@Book{Pitzer1995,
  author = {Kenneth S Pitzer},
  title = {Thermodynamics},
  year = {1995},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {McGraw-Hill International Editions},
  edition = {3rd}
}

@Article{Plank1998,
  author = {T Plank and C H Langmuir},
  title = {The geochemical composition of subducting sediment and its consequences for the crust and mantle},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Chemical Geology},
  volume = {145},
  pages = {325-394}
}

@Book{Polanski1969,
  author = {A Polanski and K Smulikowski},
  title = {Geochemia},
  year = {1969},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Wydawnictwa Geologicne},
  address = {Warsaw},
  note = {In Polish}
}

@Article{Polyachenok1978,
  author = {L D Polyachenok and K Nasarov and O G Polyachenok},
  title = {The interaction of Scandium trichloride with quartz},
  year = {1978},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Russ. J. Phys. Chem.},
  volume = {52},
  pages = {1021-1022}
}

@Article{Post1990,
  author = {W M Post and T H Peng and W R Emanuel and A W King and V H Dale and D L DeAngelis},
  title = {The global carbon cycle},
  year = {1990},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {American Scientist},
  volume = {78},
  number = {310-326}
}

@Article{Prinn2000,
  author = {R Prinn and R Weiss and P Fraser and P Simmonds and D CunnoldandF Alyea and S O'Doherty and P Salameh and B Miller and J Huang and R Wang and D Hartley and C Harth and L Steele and G Sturrock and P Midgley and A McColloch},
  title = {A history of chemically and radiatively important gases in air deduced from ALE/GAGE/AGAGE},
  year = {2000},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {J. Geophys. Res.},
  volume = {105},
  pages = {17751-17792}
}

@Inbook{Prinn2004,
  author = {R G Prinn},
  title = {Treatise on Geochemistry},
  year = {2004},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {Ralph F. Keeling},
  publisher = {Elservier Pergamon},
  chapter = {Ozone, Hydroxyl Radical, and Oxidative Capacity},
  pages = {1-19}
}

@Article{Pruschek1970,
  author = {V R Pruschek},
  title = {Die exergie der kernbrennstoffe, The exergy of nuclear fuel},
  year = {1970},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Brennstoff-Wärme-Kraft},
  volume = {22},
  number = {9},
  pages = {429-434}
}

@Article{Puertas2006,
  author = {F Puertas and A Barba and M F Gazulla and M P Gómez and M Palacios and S Martinez-Ramirez},
  title = {Rresiduos cerámicos para su posible uso como materia prima en la fabricación de clínker de cemento Portland: caracterización y activación alcalina},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Materiales de Construcción},
  volume = {56},
  number = {281},
  pages = {73-84}
}

@Book{Pugh2004,
  author = {D Pugh},
  title = {Changing Sea Levels. Effects of Tides, Weather and Climate},
  year = {2004},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
  address = {Cambridge, Eng.}
}

@Book{Menendez2005,
  author = {Emilio Menéndez Pérez and Andrés Feijóo Lorenzo},
  title = {Energía y conflictos internacionales. Política, tecnología y cooperación.},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {netbiblio}
}

@Article{Quinby1983,
  author = {M S Quinby-Hunt and K K Turekian},
  title = {Distribution of elements in sea water},
  year = {1983},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {EOS Trans},
  volume = {AGU 64},
  pages = {130-132}
}

@Inbook{Rahmstorf2006,
  author = {S Rahmstorf},
  title = {Encyclopedia of Quaternary Sciences},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {S. A. Elias},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  address = {Amsterdam},
  chapter = {Thermohaline Ocean Circulation}
}

@Article{Ramrez2005,
  author = {S Ramírez and P Vieillard and A Bouchet and A Cassagnabère and A Meunier and E Jacquot},
  title = {Alteration of the Callovo-Oxfordian clay from Meuse-Haute Marne underground laboratory (France) by alkaline solution. I. A. XRD and CEC study},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Applied Geochemistry},
  volume = {20},
  pages = {89-99}
}

@Article{Rant1961,
  author = {Z Rant},
  title = {Zur Bestimmung der spezifischen Exergie von Brennstoffen},
  year = {1961},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Allgem. Waermetechn.},
  volume = {10},
  number = {172-176},
  note = {In German}
}

@Phdthesis{Ranz1999,
  author = {L Ranz},
  title = {Análisis de los costes exergéticos de la riqueza mineral terrestre. Su aplicación para la gestión de la sostenibilidad},
  year = {1999},
  abstract = {},
  school = {Universidad de Zaragoza}
}

@Inbook{Reedvariousyears,
  author = {Alan Reed},
  title = {Canadian Minerals Yearbook (CMY)},
  year = {various years},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Natural Resources Canada (NRCan)},
  chapter = {Canadian Reserves of Selected Major Metals, and Recent Production
	Decisions}
}

@Book{Revuelta1996,
  author = {M Bustillo Revuelta and C López Jimeno},
  title = {Recursos Minerales},
  year = {1996},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {E.T.S.I. Minas - U.P.M.}
}

@Article{Reynolds1999,
  author = {D B Reynolds},
  title = {The mineral economy. How prices and costs can falsely signal decreasing scarcity},
  year = {1999},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Ecological Economics},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {155-166}
}

@Article{Riekert1974,
  author = {L Riekert},
  title = {The efficiency of energy utilization in chemical processes},
  year = {1974},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Chem. Eng. Sci},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {1613-1620}
}

@Article{Ringen1979,
  author = {S Ringen and J Lanum and F P Miknis},
  title = {Calculating heating values from elemental composition of fossil fuels},
  year = {1979},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Fuel},
  volume = {58},
  number = {69-71}
}

@Inbook{Ringwood1966,
  author = {A E Ringwood},
  title = {Advances in Earth Sciences},
  year = {1966},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {P. M. Hurley},
  publisher = {MIT Press},
  chapter = {The chemical composition and origin of the earth},
  pages = {287-356}
}

@Inproceedings{Rivero2004a,
  author = {R Rivero and M Garfias},
  title = {Standard Chemical Exergy Updated. Part II},
  year = {2004},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {Energy-Efficient, Cost-Effective, and Environmentally-Sustainable
	Systems and Processes},
  editor = {R. Rivero and L. Monroy and R. Pulido and G. Tsatsaronis},
  pages = {773-785}
}

@Inproceedings{Rivero2002,
  author = {R Rivero and G Montero and M Garfias},
  title = {The effect of environmental temperature on the chemical exergy of hydrocarbons},
  year = {2002},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of ECOS 2002},
  address = {Berlin},
  pages = {69-78}
}

@Article{Roberts1974,
  author = {F Roberts and I Torrens},
  title = {Analysis of the life cycle of non-ferrous minerals},
  year = {1974},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Resources Policy},
  pages = {14-28}
}

@Book{Robie1995,
  author = {R A Robie and B S Hemingway},
  title = {Thermodynamic properties of minerals and related substances at 298.15 K and 1 bar (10^5 Pascals) pressure and higher temperature},
  year = {1995},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2131}
}

@Book{Robie1978,
  author = {R A Robie and B S Hemingway and J R Fisher},
  title = {Thermodynamic properties of minerals and related substances at 298.15 K and 1 bar ($10^5$Pascals) pressure and at higher temperatures},
  year = {1978},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1452}
}

@Book{Mellado1999,
  author = {J M Rodriguez Mellado and R Marín Galvín},
  title = {Fisicoquímica de aguas},
  year = {1999},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Diaz de Santos}
}

@Article{Roemmich1985,
  author = {D H Roemmich and C Wunsch},
  title = {Two transatlantic sections: Meridional circulation and heat flux in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean},
  year = {1985},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Deep Sea Research},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {619-664}
}

@Inbook{Ronov1969,
  author = {A B Ronov and A A Yaroshevsky},
  title = {Earth's Crust and Upper Mantle},
  year = {1969},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {J. Pembroke},
  publisher = {American Geophysical Union},
  address = {Washington D.C.},
  chapter = {Chemical Composition of the Earth's Crust}
}

@Book{Ronov1990,
  author = {A B Ronov and A A Yaroshevsky and A A Migdisov},
  title = {Chemical structure of the earth's crust and geochemical balance of the major elements},
  year = {1990},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {M. Nauka},
  address = {Moscow}
}

@Article{roseneolss,
  author = {M A Rosen},
  title = {Energy, Culture and Standard of Life.},
  year = {Retrieved May 19, 2005},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Theories and Practices for Energy Education, Training, Regulation
	and Standards, from Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS),
	Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO. Eolss Publishers, Oxford
	,UK, [http://www.eolss.net]}
}

@Article{Rosen2002,
  author = {M A Rosen},
  title = {Can exergy help us understand and address environmental concerns?},
  year = {2002},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Exergy},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {214-217}
}

@Article{Rosen1999,
  author = {M A Rosen and I Dincer},
  title = {Exergy analysis of waste emissions},
  year = {1999},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {International journal of energy research},
  volume = {23},
  number = {13},
  pages = {1153-1163}
}

@Article{Rudnick1995,
  author = {Roberta L Rudnick},
  title = {Nature and composition of the continental crust: a lower crustal perspective},
  year = {1995},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Reviews of Geophysics},
  volume = {33},
  number = {3},
  pages = {267-309}
}

@Inbook{Rudnick2004,
  author = {R L Rudnick and S Gao},
  title = {Treatise on Geochemistry. The Crust},
  year = {2004},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {R. L. Rudnick},
  publisher = {Elsevier Pergamon},
  chapter = {Composition of the Continental Crust},
  pages = {1-64}
}

@Article{Ruoyu1997,
  author = {Chen Ruoyu and Li Jun and Xia Shuping and Gao Shiyang},
  title = {Thermochemistry of ulexite},
  year = {1997},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Thermochimica Acta},
  volume = {306},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {1-5}
}

@Book{Ruth1993,
  author = {M Ruth},
  title = {Integrating Economics, Ecology and Thermodynamics},
  year = {1993},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Kluwer Academic Publishers},
  volume = {3}
}

@Article{Ruth1995,
  author = {M Ruth},
  title = {Thermodynamic constraints on optimal depletion of copper and aluminum in the United States: a dynamic model of substitution and technical change},
  year = {1995},
  abstract = {The paper proposes a methodology to integrate concepts from thermodynamics
	into economic models of optimal natural resource use and to empirically
	determine relationships between changes in thermodynamic states of
	materials and the use of high-quality energy sources. The integration
	is aimed at an assessment of technologies, substitution and technical
	change based on economic concepts that do justice to fundamental
	physical constraints. A model of natural resource use and production
	has been developed that combines econometric time series analysis
	with dynamic modeling techniques. The model explicitly includes thermodynamic
	constraints on (i) the process of separating minerals from crude
	ore, (ii) smelting processes, (iii) substitution among inputs, and
	(iv) endogenous technical change in mining, smelting and refining.
	Based on empirical information, the model has been simulated to assess
	outer limits of feasible resource savings in copper and bauxite mining,
	smelting and refining in the United States. Conclusions are drawn
	for the evaluation of products and effluents from mining, smelting
	and refining operations with regard to changes in the physical resource
	base and environmental quality.},
  journal = {Ecological Economics},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {197-213}
}

@Article{SE2004,
  author = {Wright S E and Rosen M A},
  title = {Energetic efficiencies and the exergy content of terrestrial solar radiation},
  year = {2004},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Journal of Solar Energy Engineering},
  volume = {126},
  number = {1},
  pages = {673-676}
}

@Inbook{Sadourny1994,
  author = {R Sadourny},
  title = {Global Change of Planet Earth},
  year = {1994},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {OECD},
  chapter = {Modelling the Physical Ocean-Atmosphere System and Its Response to
	External Radiative Perturbations}
}

@Inproceedings{Schock2005,
  author = {R N Schock},
  title = {Energy Technologies for the 21st Century. The Roles of Renewable Energy},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {World Federation of Scientists International Seminars on Planetary
	Emergencies},
  address = {Erice, Italy}
}

@Article{Schuiling1976,
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  title = {Gibbs energies of formation of zircon (ZrSiO4), thorite (ThSiO4), and phenacite (Be2SiO4)},
  year = {1976},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Amer. Mineralogist},
  volume = {61},
  pages = {161-168}
}

@Article{Sciubba2003,
  author = {E Sciubba},
  title = {Extended exergy accounting applied to energy recovery from waste: The concept of total recycling},
  year = {2003},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {1315-1334}
}

@Article{Sciubba2003a,
  author = {E Sciubba},
  title = {Cost analysis of energy conversion systems via a novel resource-based quantifier},
  year = {2003},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {457-477}
}

@Article{Scotford1965,
  author = {D M Scotford},
  title = {Petrology of the Cincinnatian Series. Shales and Environmental Implication},
  year = {1965},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Geol. Soc. Am. Bull.},
  volume = {76},
  number = {2},
  pages = {193-222}
}

@Article{Scott1992,
  author = {Anthony Scott and Peter Pearse},
  title = {Natural resources in a high-tech economy},
  year = {1992},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Resources Policy},
  pages = {154-166}
}

@Inbook{Seaborg1968,
  author = { Seaborg},
  title = {Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements},
  year = {1968},
  abstract = {},
  pages = {774}
}

@Article{Seal1990,
  author = {R RI Seal and E J Essene and W C Kelly},
  title = {Tetrahedrite and Tennantite: Evaluation of thermodynamic data and phase equilibria},
  year = {1990},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Canadian Mineralogist},
  volume = {28},
  number = {725-738}
}

@Techreport{Secher2002,
  author = {K Secher},
  title = {Early mining activities in South Greenland},
  year = {2002},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum (BMP)},
  number = {2},
  note = {Online under: http://geus.dk/minex/}
}

@Inproceedings{Serova2002,
  author = {E N Serova and V M Brodianski},
  title = {The concept "environment" in exergy analysis (some special cases)},
  year = {2002},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of ECOS 2002},
  address = {Berlin},
  pages = {79-82}
}

@Inbook{Seymour2006,
  author = {Frances Seymour and Simon Zadek},
  title = {Accountability Forum Issue 9},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {John Sabapathy},
  publisher = {Greenleaf Publishing and Accountability},
  chapter = {Governing Energy: The Global Energy Challenge},
  pages = {6-15}
}

@Article{Shaw1967,
  author = {D M Shaw and G A Reilly and J R Muysson and G E Pattenden and F E Campbell},
  title = {An estimate of the chemical composition of the Canadian Precambrian shield},
  year = {1967},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Can. J. Earth Sci.},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {829-853}
}

@Inbook{Shaw1986,
  author = {D M Shaw and J J Cramer and M G Truscott},
  title = {Composition of the Canadian Precabrian shield and the continental crust of the Earth},
  year = {1986},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {J. B. Dawson and D. A. Carswell and J. Hall and K. H. Wedepohl},
  publisher = {Geol. Soc. London},
  address = {London},
  pages = {257-282}
}

@Article{Shaw1994,
  author = {D M Shaw and A P Dickin and H Li and R H McNutt and H P Scharcz and M G Truscott},
  title = {Crustal geochemistry in the Wawa-Foleyet region, Ontario},
  year = {1994},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Can. J. Earth Sci},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {1104-1121}
}

@Article{Shaw1976,
  author = {D M Shaw and J Dostal and R R Keays},
  title = {Additional estimates of continental surface Precambrian shield composition in Canada},
  year = {1976},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Geochim. Cosmoch. Acta},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {73-83}
}

@Article{Shi1992,
  author = {P F Shi and S K Saxena and B Sundman},
  title = {Sublattice solid solution model and its application to orthopyroxene (Mg,Fe)Si2O6},
  year = {1992},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Phys. Chem. Miner.},
  volume = {18},
  number = {6},
  pages = {393-405}
}

@Article{Shieh1982,
  author = {J H Shieh and L T Fan},
  title = {Estimation of energy (enthalpy) and exergy (availability) contents in structurally complicated materials},
  year = {1982},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy Sources},
  volume = {6},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1-46}
}

@Book{Shiklomanov1999,
  author = {I A Shiklomanov},
  title = {World Water Resources: Modern Assessment and Outlook for 21-st Century},
  year = {1999},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Federal Service of Rusia for Hidrometeorology \& Environment Monitoring.
	State Hydrological Institute},
  address = {St. Peterburg}
}

@Unpublished{Shvarov1999,
  author = {Y V Shvarov and M V Borisov and D V Grichuk and E N Bastrakov},
  title = {Default UNITHERM database for the HCh package for geochemical modelling},
  year = {1999},
  abstract = {},
  note = {Unpublished computer file}
}

@Book{Simon1998,
  author = {J L Simon},
  title = {The Ultimate Resource 2},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Princeton University Press}
}

@Book{Simpson2005,
  author = {R David Simpson and Michael A Toman and Robert U Ayres},
  title = {Scarcity and Growth Revisited},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {RFF}
}

@Inbook{Sims1990,
  author = {K WW Sims and H E Newson and E S Gladney},
  title = {Origin of the Earth},
  year = {1990},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {H. E. Newson and J. H. Jones and J. H. Newson},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  address = {Oxford},
  chapter = {Chemical fractionation during formation of the Earth's core and continental
	crust: clues from As, Sb, W and M., and In.},
  pages = {291-317}
}

@Article{Singer1977,
  author = {D A Singer},
  title = {Long-term adequacy of metal resources},
  year = {1977},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Resources Policy},
  pages = {127-133}
}

@Techreport{Skidmore2006,
  author = {Ch Skidmore},
  title = {Zirconium and Hafnium (chapter). In Mining Journal Review},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {Minor Metals Trade Association},
  note = {Online under: http://www.mmta.co.uk/economicsFacts/miningJournalReview.aspx}
}

@Book{Skinner1986,
  author = {B J Skinner},
  title = {Earth resources},
  year = {1986},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Prentice-Hall},
  address = {London}
}

@Article{Skinner1979,
  author = {B J Skinner},
  title = {The frequency of mineral deposits},
  year = {1979},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa},
  volume = {82},
  pages = {1-12}
}

@Article{Skinner1976,
  author = {B J Skinner},
  title = {A second iron age ahead?},
  year = {1976},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {American Scientist},
  volume = {64},
  pages = {258-269}
}

@Book{Skinner1987,
  author = {B J Skinner and S C Porter},
  title = {Physical Geology},
  year = {1987},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {John Wiley \& Sons}
}

@Book{Skinner1999,
  author = {B J Skinner and S C Porter and D B Botkin},
  title = {The Blue Planet. An introduction to earth system science},
  year = {1999},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  edition = {2nd edition}
}

@Techreport{Slough1974,
  author = {W Slough and G P Jones},
  title = {A compilation of thermodynamic data for borate systems},
  year = {1974},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {National Physics Laboratory Division Chemical Standards}
}

@Article{Smelik1994,
  author = {E A Smelik and D M Jenkins and A Navrotsky},
  title = {A calorimetric study of synthetic amphiboles along the tremolite-tschermakite join and the heats of formation of magnesiohorneblende and tschermakite},
  year = {1994},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Amer Mineral},
  volume = {79},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {1110-1122}
}

@Book{Smith1904,
  author = {Adam Smith},
  title = {An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations},
  year = {1904},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Methuen and Co., Ltd. 1904. Ed. Edwin Cannan. Library of Economics
	and Liberty.},
  note = {Retrieved May 18, 2006 from the World Wide Web: http://www.econlib.org/LIBRARY/Smith/smWN4.html}
}

@Article{Smith1979,
  author = {J V Smith},
  title = {Mineralogy of the planets: a voyage in space and time},
  year = {1979},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Mineral. Mag.},
  volume = {43},
  number = {1-89}
}

@Article{Smith2007,
  author = {L K Smith and W J Bruckard},
  title = {The separation of arsenic from copper in a Northparkes copper-gold ore using controlled-potential flotation},
  year = {2007},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {International Journal of Mineral Processing}
}

@Article{Smith1997,
  author = {N J Smith and G H Robinson},
  title = {Technology pushes reserves "crunch" date back in time},
  year = {1997},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Oil and Gas Journal},
  pages = {43-50}
}

@Article{Solow1974,
  author = {R M Solow},
  title = {The Economics of Resources or the Resources of Economics},
  year = {1974},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {American Economic Review},
  volume = {66},
  pages = {1-114}
}

@Techreport{Souza2007,
  author = {J A Souza-Neto and P H Sonnet and J M Legrand and M Volfinger},
  title = {The Bonfim W-Au-Bi-Te Skarn deposit, northeastern Brazil: a polymetallic ore revealed by emp and pixe analyses},
  year = {retrieved 17 July 2007},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {Universidad Federal de Pernambuco},
  note = {Online under: http://www.ufpe.br/geologia/docentes/publicacoes/}
}

@Inproceedings{Stanek2004,
  author = {W Stanek},
  title = {Thermo-ecology analysis of the influence of mettalurgy upon the depletion of non-renewable natural resources},
  year = {2004},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {Energy-Efficient, Cost-Effective, and Environmentally-Sustainable
	Systems and Proceses},
  editor = {L. Rivero and L. Monroy and R. Pulido and G. Tsatsaronis},
  publisher = {Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo}
}

@Inproceedings{Stanek2002,
  author = {W Stanek},
  title = {An example of the ecological cost minimization in case of blast-furnace process},
  year = {2002},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of ECOS 2002}
}

@Article{Stanek2001,
  author = {W Stanek},
  title = {Iterative Method to Evaluate the Ecological cost of Imported Goods},
  year = {2001},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Applied Thermodynamics},
  volume = {4},
  number = {4},
  pages = {191-198}
}

@Article{Stannes1992,
  author = {Donald N Stannes},
  title = {Measuring the economic value of water quality},
  year = {1992},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {The Annals of regional science},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {171-176}
}

@Article{Staudigel1998,
  author = {H Staudigel and F Albarède and J Blichert-Toft and J Edmond and B McDonough and S B Jacobsen and R Keeling and Ch H Langmuir and R L Nielsen and T Plank and R Rudnick and H F Shaw and S Shirey and J Veizer and W White},
  title = {Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM): description of the initiative},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Chemical Geology},
  volume = {134},
  pages = {515-526}
}

@Article{Steen2006a,
  author = {Bengt A Steen},
  title = {Abiotic Resource Depletion. Different perceptions of the problem with mineral deposits},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Int J LCA},
  volume = {11},
  number = {Special issue 1},
  pages = {49-54}
}

@Article{Steen2002,
  author = {Bengt Steen and Gunnar Borg},
  title = {An estimation of the cost of sustainable production of metal concentrates from the earth’s crust},
  year = {2002},
  abstract = {An attempt has been made to estimate the value of present ores to
	future generations. The direct costs for the producer and the external
	environmental costs for the society of a sustainable production of
	ore-like metal concentrates are investigated. In a technical scenario,
	granite, granodiorite and basalt rock are mined, crushed and ground
	to give fine powders. The powders are acid leached and the extracted
	metals precipitated using hydrogen sulphide and sodium hydroxide
	to form the ore-like concentrates. All chemicals are produced in
	a sustainable way. Leaching efficiencies and use of energy-ware (ISO
	standard term for oil, coal, electricity, etc.) and chemicals are
	important factors in the cost estimation, as well as the number of
	metals mined at the same time. It is assumed that 10 different metal
	concentrates are produced at the same time. The technical scenario
	uses state-of-the-art technology. No new technical achievements are
	assumed. The estimated costs exceed current prices by orders of magnitude.
	In cost estimation for individual metals, the main uncertainty lies
	in the allocation of costs amongst the metals produced at the same
	time.},
  journal = {Ecological Economics},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {401-413}
}

@Article{Stepanov1995,
  author = {V S Stepanov},
  title = {Chemical energies and exergies of fuels},
  year = {1995},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy},
  volume = {20},
  number = {3},
  pages = {235-242}
}

@Book{Strahler1992,
  author = {A N Strahler},
  title = {Physical geology},
  year = {1992},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Harper and Row Publishers},
  address = {New York}
}

@Book{Strahler1975,
  author = {Arthur N Strahler},
  title = {Physical Geography},
  year = {1975},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {John Wiley and Sons, Inc.},
  edition = {4th}
}

@Inproceedings{MV1979,
  author = {M V Sussman},
  title = {Choosing a Reference Environment-State for Available-Energy Computations},
  year = {1979},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {72nd Annual AIChE Meeting, San Francisco, California, 11/79}
}

@Inproceedings{Sussman1979,
  author = {M V Sussman},
  title = {Choosing a Reference Environment-State for Available-Energy Computations},
  year = {1979},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {72nd Annual Meeting. American Institute of Chemical Engineers},
  address = {San Francisco (USA)}
}

@Article{Svedberg2006,
  author = {Peter Svedberg and John E Tilton},
  title = {The Real, Real Price of Nonrenewable Resources: Copper 1870-2000},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {World Development},
  volume = {34},
  number = {3},
  pages = {501-519}
}

@Article{Svirezhev1997,
  author = {Yuri Svirezhev},
  title = {Exergy of the Biosphere},
  year = {1997},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Ecological Modelling},
  volume = {96},
  pages = {309-310}
}

@Article{szarguteolss,
  author = {J Szargut},
  title = {Global implications of the second law of thermodynamics},
  year = {Retrieved May 19, 2005},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Exergy, Energy System Analysis, and Optimization., from Encyclopedia
	of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of
	the UNESCO Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK; Online encyclopedia: http://www.eolss.net}
}

@Book{Szargut2005,
  author = {J Szargut},
  title = {Exergy method: technical and ecological applications},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {WIT-press},
  address = {Ashurst, UK}
}

@Article{Szargut2003,
  author = {J Szargut},
  title = {Anthropogenic and natural exergy losses (exergy balance of the earth's surface and atmosphere)},
  year = {2003},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {1047-1054}
}

@Article{Szargut1987,
  author = {J Szargut},
  title = {Standard Chemical Exergy of Some Elements and their Compounds, based upon te Concentration in Earth's Crust},
  year = {1987},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Geochemistry International},
  volume = {35},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {53-60}
}

@Article{Szargut1961,
  author = {J Szargut},
  title = {Exergy balance of metallurgical processes},
  year = {1961},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Archiwum Hutnictwa},
  volume = {6},
  number = {1},
  pages = {23-60},
  note = {In Polish}
}

@Article{Szargut1957,
  author = {J Szargut},
  title = {Energy potential balance in chemical processes},
  year = {1957},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Archiwum Budowy Maszyn},
  volume = {4},
  number = {11},
  pages = {89-117},
  note = {In Polish}
}

@Article{Szargut1971,
  author = {J Szargut and C Dziedziniewicz},
  title = {Energy utilisable des substances chimiques organiques},
  year = {1971},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Entropie},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {14-23}
}

@Article{Szargut1985,
  author = {J Szargut and D R Morris},
  title = {Calculation of standard chemical exergy of some elements and their compounds based upon seawater as the datum level substance},
  year = {1985},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Techical Sciences.},
  volume = {33},
  number = {5-6},
  pages = {293-305}
}

@Book{Szargut1988,
  author = {J Szargut and D Morris and F Steward},
  title = {Exergy analysis of thermal, chemical, and metallurgical processes},
  year = {1988},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Hemisphere Publishing Corporation}
}

@Article{Szargut1964,
  author = {J Szargut and T Styrylska},
  title = {Approximate evaluation of the exergy of fuels},
  year = {1964},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Brennst. Waerme Kraft},
  volume = {16},
  number = {12},
  pages = {589-596},
  note = {In German}
}

@Inproceedings{ecos2005,
  author = {J Szargut and A Valero and W Stanek and A Valero D},
  title = {Towards an international legal reference environment},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
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@Book{Tarbuck1984,
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@Article{Tardy1979,
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@Article{Tardy1977,
  author = {Y Tardy and R M Garrels},
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  abstract = {},
  journal = {Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta},
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@Article{Tardy1977c,
  author = {Y Tardy and R M Garrels},
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  year = {1977},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta},
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  number = {1},
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}

@Article{Tardy1976,
  author = {Y Tardy and R M Garrels},
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  abstract = {},
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}

@Article{Tardy1974,
  author = {Y Tardy and R M Garrels},
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  abstract = {},
  journal = {Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {1101-1116}
}

@Article{Tardy1977a,
  author = {Y Tardy and L Gartner},
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  volume = {63},
  pages = {89-102}
}

@Article{Tardy1977b,
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  year = {1977},
  abstract = {},
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  volume = {63},
  pages = {75-88}
}

@Inbook{Taylor1994,
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@Article{Taylor1995,
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@Book{Taylor1985,
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@Article{Teng2004,
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@Article{Thomson1998,
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@Article{Tien1976,
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@Techreport{Tilton2001,
  author = {John E Tilton},
  title = {Depletion and the Long-run Availability of Mineral Commodities},
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  abstract = {},
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  number = {14}
}

@Article{Toman1998,
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@Inbook{Tranter2004,
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  pages = {189-205}
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@Article{Trubaev2006,
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  number = {2},
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@Article{Trubaev2005,
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}

@Article{Turcotte1986,
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@Inbook{Turekian1969,
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@Article{Turner1998,
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@Article{Ulgiati2002,
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  year = {2002},
  URL = {www.cleanerproduction.net},
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}

@Book{UNEP2007,
  author = { UNEP},
  title = {Global outlook for ice and snow},
  year = {2007},
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}

@Techreport{USGS,
  author = { USGS},
  title = {Minerals Yearbook},
  year = {Various years},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {USGS},
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}

@Techreport{USGS2007,
  author = { USGS},
  title = {Mineral Commodity Summaries},
  year = {2007},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {US Geological Survey},
  note = {Online under: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/mcs}
}

@Techreport{USGS2006,
  author = { USGS},
  title = {Historical statistics for mineral and material commodities in the United States},
  year = {2006},
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  type = {Report},
  note = {Online under: http://minerals.usgs.gov/ds/2005/140/}
}

@Techreport{USGS2004,
  author = { USGS},
  title = {United States Geological Survey fact sheet},
  year = {2004},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {United States Geological Survey},
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}

@Techreport{USGS2000,
  author = { USGS},
  title = {World Assessment Summary},
  year = {2000},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {United States Geological Survey}
}

@Article{Ushakov2001,
  author = {S V Ushakov and K B Helean and A Navrotsky and L A Boatner},
  title = {Thermochemistry of rare-earth orthophosphates},
  year = {2001},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Journal of Materials Research},
  volume = {16},
  number = {9},
  pages = {2623-2633}
}

@Inproceedings{Valero2008a,
  author = {A Valero D},
  title = {Assessing world mineral deposits through the second law of thermodynamics},
  year = {2008},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {Inproceedings of the Mineral Deposit Studies Group (MDSG) conference},
  address = {Nottingham (UK)}
}

@Phdthesis{Valero2008c,
  author = {A Valero D},
  title = {Exergy evolution of the mineral capital on earth},
  year = {2008},
  abstract = {},
  school = {University of Zaragozaq},
  address = {Zaragoza, Spain}
}

@Phdthesis{ValeroD2008,
  author = {A Valero D},
  title = {Exergy evolution of the mineral capital on earth},
  year = {2008},
  abstract = {},
  school = {University of Zaragoza},
  address = {María de Luna, 3. 50018 Zaragoza}
}

@Article{Valero2008,
  author = {A Valero D and A Valero and I Arauzo},
  title = {Evolution of the decrease in mineral exergy throughout the 20th century. The case of copper in the US},
  year = {2008},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy},
  volume = {33},
  number = {2},
  pages = {107-115}
}

@Inproceedings{Valero2006a,
  author = {A Valero D and A Valero and I Arauzo},
  title = {Exergy as an indicator for resources scarcity. The exergy loss of Australian mineral capital, a case study},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of IMECE2006},
  address = {Chicago, USA}
}

@Inproceedings{Valero2005,
  author = {A Valero D and A Valero and A Martinez},
  title = {Exergy evaluation of the mineral capital on Earth. Influence of the reference environment},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of IMECE 2005},
  address = {Orlando, USA}
}

@Inproceedings{D2005,
  author = {A Valero D and A Valero and A Martínez},
  title = {Exergy evaluation of the mineral capital on earth. Influence of the reference environment.},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {ASME Proceedings}
}

@Inproceedings{Valero2006,
  author = {A Valero D and A Valero and A Martínez and G M Mudd},
  title = {A physical way to assess the decrease of mineral capital through exergy. The Australian case},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of ISEE 2006},
  address = {New Delhi, India}
}

@Inproceedings{Valero1998,
  author = {A Valero},
  title = {Thermoeconomics as a conceptual basis for energy-ecological analysis},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {Advances in Energy Studies. Energy Flows in Ecology and Economy},
  editor = {S. Ulgiati},
  address = {Musis, Roma},
  pages = {415-444}
}

@Inproceedings{Valero1991,
  author = {A Valero and I Arauzo},
  title = {Exergy outcomes associated with the greenhouse effects},
  year = {1991},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {AES, Second Analysis-Industrial and Environmental Applications},
  editor = {Reistad, G.M. and Moran, M.J. and Wepfer, W.J. and Lior, N.},
  publisher = {The American Society of Mechanical Engineers},
  pages = {63-70}
}

@Article{Valero,
  author = {A Valero and E Botero},
  title = {An assessment of the earth's clean fossil exergy capital based on exergy abatement costs},
  year = {Retreived May 2005},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy System Analysis, and Optimization., from Encyclopedia of Life
	Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO}
}

@Inproceedings{Valero2002b,
  author = {A Valero and E Botero},
  title = {Exergetic evaluation of Natural Mineral Capital (2). Application of the methodology to current world reserves},
  year = {2002},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of ECOS 2002},
  address = {Berlin},
  pages = {62-68}
}

@Article{valeroeolss,
  author = {A Valero and E Botero and A Valero D},
  title = {Exergy accounting of natural resources},
  year = {Retrieved May 19, 2005},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Exergy, Energy System Analysis, and Optimization., from Encyclopedia
	of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of
	the UNESCO Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK; Online encyclopedia: http://www.eolss.net}
}

@Book{Valero1994,
  author = {A Valero and M Lozano},
  title = {Curso de Termoeconomía},
  year = {1994},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Universidad de Zaragoza}
}

@Inproceedings{Valero1986,
  author = {A Valero and M Lozano and M Muñoz},
  title = {A general theory of exergy saving. I. On the exergetic cost},
  year = {1986},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {Computer-Aided Engineering and Energy Systems. Second Law Analysis
	and Modelling},
  editor = {R. Gaggioli},
  pages = {1-8}
}

@Inproceedings{Valero2002,
  author = {A Valero and L Ranz and E Botero},
  title = {Exergetic Evaluation of Natural Mineral Capital (1) Reference Environment Methodology},
  year = {2002},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {ECOS 2002},
  editor = {Tsatsaronis, G. and Moran, M. and Cziesla, F. and Bruckner, T.},
  address = {Berlin},
  pages = {54-61}
}

@Inproceedings{Valero2007,
  author = {A Valero and J Uche and A Valero D and A Martínez and J Escriu},
  title = {Physical Hydronomics: application of the exergy analysis to the assessment of environmental costs of water bodies. The case of the Inland Basins of Catalonia},
  year = {2007},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of ECOS 2007},
  pages = {683-692}
}

@Inproceedings{Valero2008b,
  author = {A Valero and A Valero D and C Torres},
  title = {Exergy and the Hubbert peak. An extended analysis for the assessment of the scarcity of minerals on earth},
  year = {2008},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of IMECE 2008},
  address = {Boston, USA}
}

@Article{Varajao2000a,
  author = {C AC Varajao and F Colin and P Vieillard and A J Melfi and D Nahon},
  title = {Early weathering of palladium gold under lateritic conditions, Maquiné Mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil},
  year = {2000},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Applied Geochemistry},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {245-263}
}

@Article{Vieillard2002,
  author = {P Vieillard},
  title = {A new method for the prediction of Gibbs free energies of formation of phyllosilicates (10 A and 14 A) based on the electronegativity scale},
  year = {2002},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Clays and Clay Minerals},
  volume = {50},
  number = {3},
  pages = {352-363}
}

@Article{Vieillard2000,
  author = {P Vieillard},
  title = {A new method for the prediction of Gibbs free energies of formation of hydrated clay minerals base on the electronegativity scale},
  year = {2000},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Clays \& Clay Minerals},
  volume = {48},
  number = {4},
  pages = {459-473}
}

@Article{Vieillard1995,
  author = {Philippe Vieillard},
  title = {How do uncertainties of structure refinements influence the accuracy of the prediction of enthalpy of formation? Examples on Muscovite and Natrolite},
  year = {1995},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Phys Chem Minerals},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {428-436}
}

@Article{Vieillard1994a,
  author = {P Vieillard},
  title = {Prediction of enthalpy of formation based on refined cyrstal structures of multisite compounds. 1. Theories and examples},
  year = {1994},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta},
  volume = {58},
  pages = {4049-4063}
}

@Article{Vieillard1988a,
  author = {Philippe Vieillard},
  title = {Propriétés thermochimiques des composés du cuivre atlas de donnés thermodynamiques},
  year = {1988},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Sci. Géol. Bull},
  volume = {41},
  number = {3-4},
  pages = {289-308}
}

@Techreport{Vieillard1982,
  author = {P Vieillard},
  title = {Modèle de calcul des énergies de formation des mineraux bati sur la connaisance affinée des structures cristallines},
  year = {1982},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {Université Louis Pasteur},
  type = {CNRS Memoirs},
  number = {69},
  address = {Strasbourg}
}

@Manual{Vieillard1978,
  author = {Philippe Vieillard},
  title = {Géochimie des phosphates. Étude thermodynamique. Application a la genése et a l'alteration des apatites},
  year = {1978},
  abstract = {},
  organization = {Université Louis Pasteur},
  address = {Strasbourg}
}

@Article{Vieillard1986,
  author = {P Vieillard and H DB Jenkins},
  title = {Empirical relationships for estimation of enthalpies of formation of simples hydrates. Part I Hydrates of alkali- metal cations, of hydrogen and of monovalent cations},
  year = {1986},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Journal Chemical Research (Synopsis)},
  pages = {444-445}
}

@Article{Vieillard1986a,
  author = {P Vieillard and H DB Jenkins},
  title = {Empirical relationships for estimation of enthalpies of formation of simples hydrates. Part 2. Hydrates of alkaline-earth metal cations},
  year = {1986},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Journal Chemical Research (Synopsis)},
  pages = {446-447}
}

@Article{Vieillard1986b,
  author = {P Vieillard and H DB Jenkins},
  title = {Empirical relationships for estimation of enthalpies of formation of simples hydrates. Part 3. Hydrates of transitionmetal cations ($Cr^2+,Fe^2+,Co^2+,Ni^2+,Cu^2+,Zn^2+,Cd^2+$ and $UO\_2^2+$)},
  year = {1986},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Journal Chemical Research (Synopsis)},
  pages = {448-449}
}

@Article{Vieillard1992,
  author = {P Vieillard and F Rassineux},
  title = {Thermodynamic and geochemical modelling of the alteration of two cement matrices},
  year = {1992},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Applied Geochemistry},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {125-136},
  note = {Supll. Issue}
}

@Inproceedings{Vieillard2006,
  author = {P Vieillard and L Richard and M C Boiron},
  title = {Prediction of enthalpies of formation of sulfides and sulfosalts minerals},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  booktitle = {Colloque Bilan et prospective de GDR Transmet},
  address = {Nancy, 6-7 juillet 2006}
}

@Inbook{Vieillard1984,
  author = {P Vieillard and Y Tardy},
  title = {Phosphate Minerals},
  year = {1984},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {J.O.Nriagu and P.B.Moore},
  publisher = {Springer Verlag},
  address = {New York},
  chapter = {Thermochemical properties of phosphates}
}

@Article{Vieillard1994,
  author = {P Vieillard and Y Tardy},
  title = {Prediction of enthalpy of formation based on refined crystal structures of multisite compounds. 2. Application to minerals belonging to the system $Li\_2O-Na\_2O-K\_2O-BeO-MgO-CaO-MnO$-$FeO-Fe\_2O\_3-Al\_2O\_3-SiO\_2-H\_2O$. Results and discussion},
  year = {1994},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta},
  volume = {58},
  number = {4064-4107}
}

@Article{Vieillard1988,
  author = {P Vieillard and Y Tardy},
  title = {Estimation of enthalpies of formation of minerals based on their refined crystal structures},
  year = {1988},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {American Journal of Science},
  volume = {288},
  pages = {997-1040}
}

@Book{Voituriez2003,
  author = {Bruno Voituriez},
  title = {The changing ocean},
  year = {2003},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {UNESCO Publishing}
}

@Article{Vorst2009,
  author = {Geert Vander Vorst and Herman Van Langenhove and Frederik DePaepandWim Aelterman and Jules Dingenen and Jo Dewulf},
  title = {Exergetic life cycle analysis for the selection of chromatographic separation processes in the pharmaceutical industry: preparative HPLC versus preparative SFC},
  year = {2009},
  abstract = {Today, environmentally responsible chemistry is of huge importance
	in the wake of sustainable
	
	production. In the field of the fine chemical and pharmaceutical industry,
	preparative supercritical
	
	fluid chromatography (Prep-SFC) and preparative high performance liquid
	chromatography
	
	(Prep-HPLC) are widely used chiral separation techniques. Prep-SFC
	is often named as a green
	
	alternative for Prep-HPLC without having a thorough assessment of
	the greenness. However, if
	
	metrics are used for process selection with respect to green chemistry,
	they mainly show three
	
	shortcomings: (1) a narrow system boundary approach is used; (2) energy
	requirements are barely
	
	taken into account and (3) if energy requirements are considered,
	there is a differentiation in mass
	
	and energy inputs. Taking into account these shortcomings, Prep-HPLC
	and Prep-SFC are now
	
	compared and evaluated for their integral resource consumption. The
	evaluation is performed on
	
	a specific enantiomeric separation using exergetic life cycle analysis
	within enlarging system
	
	boundaries a, b and g. Within the a system boundary (process level),
	Prep-HPLC requires 26.3
	
	more resources quantified in exergy than the Prep-SFC separation due
	to its inherent higher use of
	
	organic solvents. Within the b system boundary (plant level), Prep-HPLC
	requires 29.1
	
	resources quantified in exergy than Prep-SFC. However, the Cumulative
	Exergy Extracted from
	
	the Natural Environment (CEENE) to deliver all mass and energy flows
	to the a and b system
	
	boundary via the overall industrial metabolism shows that Prep-SFC
	requires 34.3
	
	resources than Prep-HPLC. The poor score of Prep-SFC in the g system
	boundary is attributed to
	
	the high CEENE value related to the production of liquid carbon dioxide
	and the use of electricity
	
	for heating and cooling. It can be concluded that for this case, the
	most sustainable process as for
	
	the integral resource consumption is Prep-HPLC, unlike the general
	perception that Prep-SFC
	
	outperforms Prep-HPLC.},
  journal = {Green Chem.},
  pages = {1-6}
}

@Book{Abeledo1998,
  author = {M Vázquez Abeledo},
  title = {La historia y el cambio climático},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Mc Graw Hill},
  edition = {1st}
}

@Book{Wagman1982,
  author = {D D Wagman and H E William and V B Parker and R HandHalow,I Schumm and S M Bailey and K L Churney and R L, Nuttall},
  title = {The NBS tables of chemical thermodynamic properties: Selected values for inorganic and C1 and C2 organic substances in SI units},
  year = {1982},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {American Chemical Society and the American Institute of Physics for
	the National Bureau of Standards},
  address = {New York}
}

@Article{walleolssexer,
  author = {G Wall},
  title = {Exergetics},
  year = {Retrieved May 19, 2005},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Eolss Publishers, Oxford ,UK, [http://www.eolss.net]}
}

@Article{walleolssnat,
  author = {G Wall},
  title = {National Exergy Accounting of Natural Resources},
  year = {Retrieved May 19, 2005},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK, [http://www.eolss.net]}
}

@Techreport{Wall1977,
  author = {G Wall},
  title = {Exergy - a Useful Concept within Resource Accounting},
  year = {1977},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {Institute of Theoretical Physics, Göteborg},
  type = {report},
  number = {77-42}
}

@Article{Wall2001,
  author = {G Wall and M Gong},
  title = {On exergy and sustainable development-Part 1: Conditions and concepts},
  year = {2001},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Exergy Int. J.},
  volume = {1},
  number = {3},
  pages = {128-145}
}

@Article{Wang2004,
  author = {W Wang and R X Huang},
  title = {Wind energy input to the surface waves},
  year = {2004},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Journal of Physical Oceanography},
  volume = {34},
  number = {5},
  pages = {1276-1280}
}

@Techreport{Watson1999,
  author = {J M Watson},
  title = {Inside the Earth},
  year = {1999},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {USGS},
  note = {Online under: http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/inside.html}
}

@Book{WCED1987,
  author = { WCED},
  title = {Our Common Future (The Brundtland Report)},
  year = {1987},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press}
}

@Book{Weast1986,
  author = {R C Weast and W J Astle and W H Beyer},
  title = {CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics},
  year = {1986},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {CRC Press}
}

@Techreport{WEC2007,
  author = { WEC},
  title = {Survey of Energy Resources 2007},
  year = {2007},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {World Energy Council},
  note = {Online under: http://www.worldenergy.org/publica tions/ survey\\_of\\_energy\\_resources\\_2007/
	default.asp}
}

@Techreport{WEC2004,
  author = { WEC},
  title = {Energy end-use technologies for the 21st Century},
  year = {2004},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {World Energy Council},
  address = {London, UK},
  note = {Online under: http://www.worldenergy.org/wec-geis}
}

@Book{WEC1989,
  author = { WEC},
  title = {1989 Enquetes sur les Resources Energetiques},
  year = {1989},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Holywell Press Ltd}
}

@Article{Wedepohl1995,
  author = {K H Wedepohl},
  title = {The composition of the continental crust},
  year = {1995},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta},
  volume = {59},
  number = {7},
  pages = {1217-1232}
}

@Book{Wedepohl1971,
  author = {K H Wedepohl},
  title = {Geochemistry},
  year = {1971},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.}
}

@Inbook{White1963,
  author = {D E White and J D Hem and G A Waring},
  title = {Data of Geochemistry},
  year = {1963},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {M. Fleischer},
  publisher = {U.S. Geological Survey},
  edition = {6th},
  series = {Bull. 440-F},
  chapter = {Chemical composition of sub-surface waters}
}

@Inbook{Wilhelm1994,
  author = {M J Wilhelm and K C Williams},
  title = {Industrial Minerals and Rocks},
  year = {1994},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {D. D. Carr},
  publisher = {Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc.},
  chapter = {Bromine Resources},
  pages = {187-189}
}

@Inbook{WilliamsStroud1994,
  author = {S C Williams-Stroud and J P Searls and R J Hite},
  title = {Industrial Minerals and Rocks},
  year = {1994},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {D. D. Corr},
  publisher = {Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc.},
  edition = {6th},
  chapter = {Potash resources},
  pages = {783-802}
}

@Article{Wils1998,
  author = {Annababette Wils},
  title = {End-use or extraction efficiency in natural resource utilization: which is better?},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {The role of technology innovations in making the wealth of non-renewable
	resources available to the modern economy is indisputable. Yet, there
	have been very few studies that compare the effects of different
	types of technology improvements on natural resource use. This article
	undertakes the comparison of the relative merits of end-use efficiency
	and extraction efficiency. The model used includes the dynamics of
	non-renewable resource use, decreasing ease of access, research and
	efficiency technologies. The simulation results show that, all else
	being equal, investments in end-use efficiency research lead to higher
	levels of service gained from resource use than investments in extraction
	efficiency alone. A combination of technologies, skewed towards end-use
	efficiency is superior to either by itself. © 1998 John Wiley \& Sons,
	Ltd.},
  journal = {System Dynamics Review},
  volume = {14},
  number = {2-3},
  pages = {163 - 188}
}

@Techreport{WNA2007,
  author = { WNA},
  title = {World Uranium Mining},
  year = {2007},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {World Nuclear Association},
  note = {Online under: http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf23.html}
}

@Book{Wolery1992,
  author = {T J Wolery and S A Daveler},
  title = {A software package for geochemical modeling of aqueous systems},
  year = {1992},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory}
}

@Book{Woods1987,
  author = {T L Woods and R M Garrels},
  title = {Thermodynamic Values at Low Temperature for Natural Inorganic Materials: An Uncritical Summary},
  year = {1987},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  address = {New York}
}

@Book{WRI2000,
  author = { WRI},
  title = {World resources 2000-2001},
  year = {2000},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {World Resources Institute},
  address = {Washington, DC}
}

@Article{Wunder1998,
  author = {Bernd Wunder},
  title = {Equilibrium experiments in the sys.tem $MgO-SiO\_2-H\_2O$ (MSH): stability fields of clinohumite-OH [$Mg\_9Si\_4O\_16(OH)\_2$], chondrodite-OH [$g\_5Si\_2O\_8(OH)\_2$] and phase A $(Mg\_7Si\_2O\_8(OH)\_6$},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Contrib Mineral Petrol},
  volume = {132},
  pages = {111-120}
}

@Article{Xu1999,
  author = {Huifang Xu and Yifeng Wang},
  title = {Use of linear free energy relationship to predict Gibbs free energies of formation of pyrochlore phases $Ca\_MTi\_2O\_7$},
  year = {1999},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Nuclear Materials},
  volume = {275},
  pages = {216-220}
}

@Article{Yelle1979,
  author = {Louis E Yelle},
  title = {The Learning Curve: Historical Review and Comprehensive Survey},
  year = {1979},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Decision Sciences},
  volume = {10},
  number = {2},
  pages = {302-328}
}

@Inbook{Yoder1995,
  author = {C F Yoder},
  title = {Global Earth Physics: A handbook of physical constants},
  year = {1995},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {Ahrens},
  publisher = {Amercian geophysical union},
  chapter = {Astrometic and geodetic properties of the Earth and Solar system},
  pages = {1-31}
}

@Article{YoshikiGravelsins1993a,
  author = {K S Yoshiki-Gravelsins and J M Toguri},
  title = {Metals Production, Energy, and the Environment, Part I: Energy Consumption},
  year = {1993},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {JOM : Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {15-20}
}

@Book{YoshikiGravelsins1993,
  author = {K S Yoshiki-Gravelsins and J M Toguri and T C Choo},
  title = {Metals Production, Energy, and the Environment},
  year = {1993},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {JOM},
  volume = {Part I: Energy Consumption}
}

@Article{Zaleta1998,
  author = {A Zaleta and L Ranz and A Valero},
  title = {Towards a unified measure of renewable resources availability: the exergy method applied to the water of a river},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy Conversion and Management},
  volume = {39},
  number = {16-18},
  pages = {1911-1917}
}

@Techreport{Zelenik1961,
  author = {F J Zelenik and S Gordon},
  title = {Simultaneous Least-Square Approximation of a Function and its First Integrals with Application to Thermodynamic Data},
  year = {1961},
  abstract = {},
  institution = {NASA},
  number = {TN D-767}
}

@Article{MY1998,
  author = {M Y Zhang and G M Reistad},
  title = {Analysis of energy conversion systems, including material and global warming aspects},
  year = {1998},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {HVAC\&R RESEARCH},
  volume = {4},
  number = {1},
  pages = {45-65}
}

@Article{Zhu2008,
  author = {Xin-Guang Zhu and Stephen P Long and Donald R Ort},
  title = {What is the maximum efficiency with which photosynthesis can convert solar energy into biomass?},
  year = {2008},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Current Opinion in Biotechnology},
  volume = {19},
  number = {2},
  pages = {153-159}
}

@Inbook{Zwartendyk1987,
  author = {J Zwartendyk and P H Abelson and H G Baumann and J P Clark and M Dalheimer and J Darmstadter and P Demeny and R L Gordon and D P Harris and H J Krupp and J E Tilton and F W Wiedenbein},
  title = {Resources and World Development},
  year = {1987},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {D.J. McLaren and B.J. Skinner},
  publisher = {John Wiley and Sons Limited},
  chapter = {Human factors influencing resource availability and use},
  pages = {532-546}
}

@Book{Ahmad1989,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Environmental accounting},
  year = {1989},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {The World Bank},
  address = {Washington, D.C.}
}

@Book{Carr1994,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Industrial Minerals and Rocks},
  year = {1994},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc.},
  address = {Littleton, Colorado}
}

@Inbook{Costanza1991,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Ecological Economics-The Science and Management of Sustainability},
  year = {1991},
  abstract = {},
  editor = {Costanza, R.},
  publisher = {Columbia University Press},
  address = {New York},
  chapter = {Part II: Accounting, Modeling and Analysis}
}

@Book{Cox1992,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Mineral Deposit Models},
  year = {1992},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {US Geological Survey},
  volume = {US Geological Survey Bulletin 1693},
  note = {Online under: hhtp://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/b1693/}
}

@Book{Dieren1995,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Taking Nature into Account},
  year = {1995},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Copernicus}
}

@Book{Drever2004,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Treatise on Geochemistry. Surface and Ground Water, Weathering, and Soils},
  year = {2004},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Elsevier Pergamon},
  volume = {5}
}

@Book{Elderfield2004,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Treatise on Geochemistry. The Oceans and Marine Geochemistry},
  year = {2004},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Elsevier Pergamon},
  volume = {6}
}

@Book{Espasa1986,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada},
  year = {1986},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Espasa-Calpe},
  volume = {25},
  note = {pp. 938-939}
}

@Book{Gregory1981,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Man and Environmental Processes},
  year = {1981},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Butterworths}
}

@Book{Hart1969,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {The Earth's Crust and Upper Mantle},
  year = {1969},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {American Geophysical Union},
  address = {Washington, D. C.},
  volume = {13}
}

@Book{Idyll1970,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {The Science of the Sea},
  year = {1970},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Nelson}
}

@Book{Keeling2004,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Treatise on Geochemistry. The Atmosphere},
  year = {2004},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Elsevier Pergamon},
  volume = {4}
}

@Book{Kuzvart1984,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Industrial minerals and rocks},
  year = {1984},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  volume = {18}
}

@Book{Mclaren1987,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Resources and World Development},
  year = {1987},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {John Wiley and Sons}
}

@Book{Naredo1999,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Desarrollo económico y deterioro ecológico},
  year = {1999},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Fundación Argentaria},
  address = {Madrid}
}

@Book{Perry1984,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Perry's Chemical Engineers Handbook},
  year = {1984},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {McGraw Hill},
  address = {New York}
}

@Book{Rudnick2004a,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Treatise on Geochemistry. The Crust},
  year = {2004},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Elsevier Pergamon},
  volume = {3}
}

@Book{Schellnhuber2006,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Avoiding dangerous climate change},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Cambridge University Press}
}

@Book{Smith1979a,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Scarcity and Growth Reconsidered},
  year = {1979},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {John Hopkins University Press for Resources for the Future}
}

@Book{Thomas2003,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Sea Ice. An introdction to its physics, chemistry, biology and geology},
  year = {2003},
  abstract = {Sea ice, which covers up to 7
	component of the world's oceans, an important component of ocean
	circulation and global climate patterns. It provides a habitat for
	a rich diversity of marine organisms, and is a valuable source of
	information in studies of global climate change and the evolution
	of present day life forms. Increasingly, sea ice is being used as
	a proxy for extraterrestrial ice covered systems. This important
	text provides a comprehensive review of our current knowledge of
	polar pack ice, the study of which severely constrained by the logistic
	difficulties of working in such harsh and remote regions of the earth.
	The books's editors, Drs Thomas and dieckmann, have drawn together
	an impressive group of international authors, providing a well-edited
	and integrated volume that will stand for many years as the standard
	work on the subject. Contents of the book include details of the
	growth, microstructure and properties of sea ice, large-scale variations
	in thickness and characteristics, its primary production, micro-and
	macrobiology, sea ice as a habitat for birds, and mammals, sea ice
	biogeochemistry, particulate flus, and the distribution and significance
	of palaeo sea ice. Sea ice an essential purchase for oceanographers
	and marine scientists, environmental scientists, biologists, geochemists
	and geologists. All those involved in the study of global climate
	change will find this book contains a wealth of important information.},
  publisher = {Blackwell Science Ltd}
}

@Book{Vanecek1994,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Mineral deposits of the world. Ores, industrial minerals and rocks},
  year = {1994},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  volume = {28}
}

@Book{CRC1975,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics},
  year = {1975},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {CRC Press}
}

@Book{WedepohlV1969,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Handbook of Geochemistry},
  year = {1969},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  address = {Berlin},
  volume = {II-5}
}

@Book{Wedepohl1969,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Handbook of Geochemistry},
  year = {1969},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  address = {Berlin},
  volume = {1}
}

@Misc{Lenntech,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Lenntech},
  year = {},
  abstract = {},
  howpublished = {Online under: http://www.lenntech.com/Periodic-chart-elements}
}

@Book{Larousse1990,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Gran Enciclopedia Larousse},
  year = {1990},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Planeta, S.A.},
  volume = {10},
  note = {pp. 4771-4772}
}

@Book{Espasa1987,
  author = {No authors specified},
  title = {Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada},
  year = {1987},
  abstract = {},
  publisher = {Espasa-Calpe},
  volume = {Suplemento 1969-1970},
  note = {pp. 440-441}
}

@Misc{Meth1,
  author = {Alicia Valero and Antonio Valero and Philippe Vieillard},
  authorURLs = {http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and  },
  title = {Methodology 1},
  year = {2008},
  URL = {/excalc/Meth/Method1.pdf/download},
  abstract = {This document explains the 1st of the 12 methods used for calculating the thermochemical properties of chemical substances shown in the Exergoecology Portal},
  howpublished = {Misc}
}

@Misc{Meth2,
  author = {Alicia Valero and Antonio Valero and Philippe Vieillard},
  authorURLs = {http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and  },
  title = {Methodology 2},
  year = {2008},
  URL = {/excalc/Meth/Method2.pdf/download},
  abstract = {This document explains the 2nd of the 12 methods used for calculating the thermochemical properties of chemical substances shown in the Exergoecology Portal},
  howpublished = {Misc}
}

@Misc{Meth3,
  author = {Alicia Valero and Antonio Valero and Philippe Vieillard},
  authorURLs = {http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and  },
  title = {Methodology 3 and 4},
  year = {2008},
  URL = {/excalc/Meth/Method3and4.pdf/download},
  abstract = {This document explains the 3rd and 4th of the 12 methods used for calculating the thermochemical properties of chemical substances shown in the Exergoecology Portal},
  howpublished = {Misc}
}

@Misc{Meth4,
  author = {Alicia Valero and Antonio Valero and Philippe Vieillard},
  authorURLs = {http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and  },
  title = {Methodology 3 and 4},
  year = {2008},
  URL = {/excalc/Meth/Method3and4.pdf/download},
  abstract = {This document explains the 3rd and 4th of the 12 methods used for calculating the thermochemical properties of chemical substances shown in the Exergoecology Portal},
  howpublished = {Misc}
}

@Misc{Meth5,
  author = {Alicia Valero and Antonio Valero and Philippe Vieillard},
  authorURLs = {http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and  },
  title = {Methodology 5},
  year = {2008},
  URL = {/excalc/Meth/Method5.pdf/download},
  abstract = {This document explains the 5th of the 12 methods used for calculating the thermochemical properties of chemical substances shown in the Exergoecology Portal},
  howpublished = {Misc}
}

@Misc{Meth6,
  author = {Alicia Valero and Antonio Valero and Philippe Vieillard},
  authorURLs = {http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and  },
  title = {Methodology 6},
  year = {2008},
  URL = {/excalc/Meth/Method6.pdf/download},
  abstract = {This document explains the 6th of the 12 methods used for calculating the thermochemical properties of chemical substances shown in the Exergoecology Portal},
  howpublished = {Misc}
}

@Misc{Meth7,
  author = {Alicia Valero and Antonio Valero and Philippe Vieillard},
  authorURLs = {http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and  },
  title = {Methodology 7},
  year = {2008},
  URL = {/excalc/Meth/Method1.pdf/download},
  abstract = {This document explains the 7th of the 12 methods used for calculating the thermochemical properties of chemical substances shown in the Exergoecology Portal},
  howpublished = {Misc}
}

@Misc{Meth8,
  author = {Alicia Valero and Antonio Valero and Philippe Vieillard},
  authorURLs = {http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and  },
  title = {Methodology 8},
  year = {2008},
  URL = {/excalc/Meth/Method8.pdf/download},
  abstract = {This document explains the 8th of the 12 methods used for calculating the thermochemical properties of chemical substances shown in the Exergoecology Portal},
  howpublished = {Misc}
}

@Misc{Meth9,
  author = {Alicia Valero and Antonio Valero and Philippe Vieillard},
  authorURLs = {http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and  },
  title = {Methodology 9},
  year = {2008},
  URL = {/excalc/Meth/Method9.pdf/download},
  abstract = {This document explains the 9th of the 12 methods used for calculating the thermochemical properties of chemical substances shown in the Exergoecology Portal},
  howpublished = {Misc}
}

@Misc{Meth10,
  author = {Alicia Valero and Antonio Valero and Philippe Vieillard},
  authorURLs = {http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and  },
  title = {Methodology 10},
  year = {2008},
  URL = {/excalc/Meth/Method10.pdf/download},
  abstract = {This document explains the 10th of the 12 methods used for calculating the thermochemical properties of chemical substances shown in the Exergoecology Portal},
  howpublished = {Misc}
}

@Misc{Meth11,
  author = {Alicia Valero and Antonio Valero and Philippe Vieillard},
  authorURLs = {http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and  },
  title = {Methodology 11},
  year = {2008},
  URL = {/excalc/Meth/Method11.pdf/download},
  abstract = {This document explains the 11th of the 12 methods used for calculating the thermochemical properties of chemical substances shown in the Exergoecology Portal},
  howpublished = {Misc}
}

@Misc{Meth12,
  author = {Alicia Valero and Antonio Valero and Philippe Vieillard},
  authorURLs = {http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and http://www.exergoecology.com/Members/valero and  },
  title = {Methodology 12},
  year = {2008},
  URL = {/excalc/Meth/Method12.pdf/download},
  abstract = {This document explains the 12th of the 12 methods used for calculating the thermochemical properties of chemical substances shown in the Exergoecology Portal},
  howpublished = {Misc}
}

@Article{Dunbar1994,
  author = {W R Dunbar and N Lior},
  title = {Sources of combustion irreversibility},
  year = {1994},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Combustion Science and Technology},
  volume = {103},
  pages = {41-61}
}

@Article{Dunbar1993,
  author = {W R Dunbar and N Lior and R Gaggioli},
  title = {The effect of the fuel-cell unit size on the efficiency of a fuel-cell-topped Rankine Cycle},
  year = {1993},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {ASME J. Energy Resources Technology},
  volume = {115},
  pages = {105-107}
}

@Article{Dunbar1992,
  author = {W R Dunbar and N Lior and R Gaggioli},
  title = {The component equations of energy and exergy},
  year = {1992},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {ASME J. Energy Resources Technology},
  volume = {114},
  pages = {75-83}
}

@Article{Dunbar1991,
  author = {W R Dunbar and N Lior and R Gaggioli},
  title = {Combining fuel cells with fuel-fired power plants for improved exergy efficiency},
  year = {1991},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy},
  volume = {16, 10},
  pages = {1259-1274}
}

@Article{Dunbar1995,
  author = {W R Dunbar and S D Moody and N Lior},
  title = {Exergy analysis of an operating boiling-water-reactor nuclear power station},
  year = {1995},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy Conversion and Management},
  volume = {36, 3},
  pages = {149-159}
}

@Article{Hamed1996,
  author = {O A Hamed and A M Zamamiri and S Aly and N Lior},
  title = {Thermal performance and exergy analysis of a thermal vapor compression desalination system},
  year = {1996},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy Conversion and Management},
  volume = {37},
  pages = {379-387}
}

@Article{Leites2003,
  author = {I L Leites and D A Sama and N Lior},
  title = {The theory and practice of energy saving in the chemical industry: some methods for reducing thermodynamic irreversibility in chemical technology processes},
  year = {2003},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {55-97}
}

@Article{Lior2002,
  author = {N Lior},
  title = {Thoughts about future power generation systems and the role of exergy analysis in their development},
  year = {2002},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy Conversion and Management},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {1187-1198}
}

@Article{Lior1997,
  author = {N Lior},
  title = {Advanced energy conversion to power},
  year = {1997},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy Conversion and Management},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {941-945}
}

@Article{Lior1997a,
  author = {N Lior},
  title = {Energy, exergy, and thermoeconomic analysis of the effects of fossil-fuel superheating in nuclear power plants},
  year = {1997},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy C},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {1585-1593}
}

@Article{Lior2005,
  author = {N Lior and H S Al-Sharqawi},
  title = {Exergy analysis of flow dehumidification by solid desiccants},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy},
  volume = {30, 6},
  pages = {915-931}
}

@Article{Lior1988,
  author = {N Lior and G J Rudy},
  title = {Second Law Analysis of an Ideal Otto Cycle},
  year = {1988},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy Conversion and Management},
  volume = {28, 4},
  pages = {327-334}
}

@Article{Lior2006,
  author = {N Lior and W Sarmiento-Darkin and H S Al-Sharqawi},
  title = {The exergy fields in transport processes: Their calculation and use},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {553-578}
}

@Article{Lior2007,
  author = {N Lior and N Zhang},
  title = {Energy, exergy, and Second Law performance criteria},
  year = {2007},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy},
  volume = {32, 4},
  pages = {281-296}
}

@Article{Zhang2012,
  author = {N Zhang and N Lior},
  title = {Use of Low/Mid-Temperature Solar Heat for Thermochemical Upgrading of Energy, Part I: Application to a Novel Chemically-Recuperated Gas-Turbine Power Generation (SOLRGT) System.},
  year = {2012},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {ASME J. of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power},
  volume = {134, 7},
  pages = {072301 1-14}
}

@Article{Zhang2008,
  author = {N Zhang and N Lior},
  title = {A novel Brayton cycle with the integration of liquid hydrogen cryogenic exergy utilization},
  year = {2008},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {International Journal of Hydrogen Energy},
  volume = {33, 1},
  pages = {214-224}
}

@Article{Zhang2006,
  author = {N Zhang and N Lior},
  title = {A novel near-zero emission thermal cycle with LNG cryogenic exergy utilization},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {Energy},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {1666-1679}
}

@Article{Zhang2006a,
  author = {N Zhang and N Lior},
  title = {Proposal and analysis of a novel zero CO2 emission cycle with LNG cryogenic exergy utilization},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {ASME J. Energy Resources Technology},
  volume = {128},
  pages = {81-91}
}

@Article{Zhang2012a,
  author = {N Zhang and N Lior and C Luo},
  title = {Use of Low/Mid-Temperature Solar Heat for Thermochemical Upgrading of Energy, Part II: A Novel Zero-Emissions Design (ZE-SOLRGT) of the Solar Chemically-Recuperated Gas-Turbine Power Generation System (SOLRGT) guided by its Exergy Analysis.},
  year = {2012},
  abstract = {},
  journal = {ASME J. of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power},
  volume = {134, 7},
  pages = {072302 1-8}
}
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